Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR)
Measles vaccine is an attenuated live viral vaccine and it is to be administered subcutaneously immediately after reconstitution. It also needs to be stored between 2 and 8 degree Celsius. The recommended age of immunization in developing countries is about 9 months of age and in developed countries, it is given between 12-15 months of age. Given prior to 8 months of age, the antibody response may not be adequate in view of interference by the maternally transmitted antibodies. An aerosol preparation is currently available which may be given to infants less than 6 months of age and is found to be effective.
Measles vaccine is combined with mumps and rubella and available as MMR vaccine. Rubella vaccine is usually given to all girls by the time of puberty and the main aim is
to prevent the teratogenic effect of the virus on the growing fetus during the first trimester of pregnancy. Mumps vaccine is given usually by about 6 years of age. Aseptic meningitis is one of the rare complications after mumps vaccination and resolves
However, measles occurring in immunized subjects is always mild with lesser complications and has a lower case fatality rate and also seems to be non-contagious. Measles elimination will require a high coverage, more effective vaccine and may be a booster does at a later date.
Measles and MMR vaccines are contraindicated in persons with hypersensitivity to egg protein and immunodeficiency in view of the gravity of complications following natural measles infection. Measles immunization is recommended in HIV positive children.
Measles vaccine is given at 9 months
Mumps vaccine is given at 6 years
MMR is given in girls at puberty
Contraindicated in pregnancy, hypersensitivity to egg protein
Measles immunization is recommended in HIV positive children