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Adult Immunizations

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Adult Immunizations
Dr. V Ramasubramanian MD, MRCP*

Immunization refers to the artificial induction

of immunity. It can be by (i) Active Immunization: the use of live attenuated infectious agents or inactivated toxins, or antigens obtained by genetic recombination OR (ii) Passive Immunization: temporary immunity obtained by the administration of immunoglobulins
or antitoxins. Certain vaccines are routinely recommended for all infants and children. These include Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus (DPT), Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) and Hepatitis B. H.Influenza (Hib) and varicella vaccines are optional. Every effort
should be made to ensure that all children are immunized.

Adult Immunization Schedule.

Vaccine Primary course Dosing Reinforcing Comments & age given Interval Doses.

Diphtheria 3 doses of low dose 4 weeks After 10 years.

> 10 years vaccine 0.5ml sc or im.

Tetanus 3 doses adsorbed 4 weeks At school leaving.

> 10 years vaccine 0.5ml sc or im or 10 years after primary course Further booster 10 years later.

OPV 3 doses 4 weeks Adults 10 yearly Faecal excretion of if at continuing vaccine virus up to 6 risk weeks. May be longer if immunity is suppressed.

Hepatitis A Formerly 2 doses 2 - 4 weeks Single booster For prolonged or >/ =16 years 1 dose of monodose 6 -12 months frequent travel to after initial dose high-risk areas. / course gives Manufacturer immunity upto recommends using 10 years same vaccine for booster dose as was used for primary course.

Typhoid 2 doses 0.5ml sc or im 4 - 6 weeks 3 yearly All but the first dose > 10 years can be given as 0.1ml id.

Vi antigen 0.5ml sc or im Single injection 3 yearly > 18 months.

Oral Ty 21a 3 doses of one Alternate days Full 3 dose Must be stored in > 6 years capsule course annually fridge.

Yellow fever 1 dose 0.5ml sc 10 yearly Given at designated > 9 months centres only.

Meningococ 1 dose 0.5ml sc or im Every 3 years May be less effec- al A&C tive under 18 > 2 months months of age.

Hepatitis B 3 doses 1.0ml im 0, 1 and 6 One booster > 12 years months at 3 -5 years.


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