Tuberculosis / Pulmonary Tuberculosis / Lung Tuberculosis /TB

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Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious bacterial infection caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

It is estimated that over 8 million new cases of TB occur each year worldwide.


Generally, tuberculosis affects the lungs (known as pulmonary tuberculosis) but may spread to other organs including the lymph nodes, gastro intestinal tract, genito-urinary tract, brain, coverings of the brain (meninges) or heart (pericardium), bones, joints, skin, eyes or almost any other organ in the body. Only the hair and nails are not affected by TB.

When a person is infected with pulmonary tuberculosis, the bacteria in the lungs multiply and cause pneumonia along with chest pain, hemoptysis and a prolonged cough. The lymph nodes near the heart and lungs become enlarged. As the TB bacteria tries to spread to other parts of the body, the body's immune system often interrupts the process and forms scar tissue or fibrosis around the TB bacteria. This helps fight the infection and prevents the disease from spreading in the body and to other people. If the body's immune system is unable to fight the bacteria the disease returns to an active state with pneumonia and damage to kidneys, bones, and the meninges that line the spinal cord and brain.

Tuberculosis can be classified as latent or active.

Latent tuberculosis is when the bacteria in the body are in an inactive state and the person shows no symptoms. Latent tuberculosis is not contagious.

Active tuberculosis is contagious and can make a person sick.

TB is spread through the air when people with an active pulmonary tuberculosis infection cough, sneeze, shouts or spit.

The treatment can continue for several months and the patient has to take the medicines at the given time regularly for the prescribed duration. If TB medications are not taken as per the healthcare providers recommendations the infection may become much more difficult to treat and sometimes the TB bacteria may become resistant to treatment.

TB is a preventable disease. BCG vaccination is given to people in countries where there is high prevalence of tuberculosis.

Lately the incidence of tuberculosis is increasing due to increased HIV cases and appearance of drug resistant strains of TB.

In 1826 a physician Laennec said this about tuberculosis -
"Whatever the form in which the tuberculous matter develops, it begins as a grey, semi-transparent matter that little by little becomes yellow, opaque, and dense. Then it softens, and slowly acquires liquidity like pus. This pus when expelled through the airways leaves cavities, commonly called ulcers of the lung; that we will designate as tuberculous excavations."
-Rene-Theophile-Hyacinthe Laennec, 1826

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dear sir,I was going through spinal TB treatment for about 10-11 months..and Istop taking medicines after this time period.. and now I am feeling symptoms again such as weakness,loss of weight but no cough..on my upper portion of my back its something like nailing inside..I am really afraid to consult doctor again because doctor told me that their is no ways to treat TB if you stopped taking medicine without my consult..I stopped my medicine in starting of January 2015..please help me age is 25 years and I am a boy living in India
Atul22 Wednesday, September 2, 2015
Sir, I am female aged 40 years, Indian national staying in UAE for last 10 years. Every 3 years for getting a residense visa I need to undergo medical tests to check for any infectious disease. So many years I have done tests, never faced any problem. Unfortunately very recently when I had to undergo X-ray they found some spot in my chest and suspected for TB. As instructed by health authorities I had to undergo skin test, IGRA blood test and Sputum test. Skin test and IGRA blood test has come negative. Moreover sputum test is also negative. Only test left is sputum culture test result which they said will take 42 days. I had submitted my sputum last month. I had checked yesterday for any developments with the authorities as they said you could check after 15 days post sputum submital. The result was still not available and they told to wait till end of this month for final result as 42 days will be completed. In last 6 months or may be more I never had any TB symptoms such as headache, fever, fatigue, weight loss, cough etc. I am very much worried about the final outcome which will decide whether I could continue staying in UAE or not. Can you please advice what are the chances of the test outcome. Is it possible that I am infected. Your reply will help to release my anxiety and educate other friends in such incidents.
Man100 Thursday, July 24, 2014
Hi, My mother is 72yrs old.She has been having low grade fever past 2 months. Her sking TB test and TB gold blood test are positive. She suffers from weak stomach. she doesn't have any cough, has had slight weight loss, has pain in her shoulders ans base of spine. Please let me know what kind of TB is she suffering from and would she be able to sustain such strong TB medication? What can I do to help her?
Shuby Friday, August 16, 2013
My daughter aged 10years had chine of Lymphnodes enlarged rht sid of the neck and NFAC done report says single TB bacteria cell found. Then doctor started ATT, after 10days she got high fever @103 and full total rashes. Admited in hospita. The doctor says its measles.. now the treatment for ATT stoppped and LFT reports 2 levels increased. Now i am not understanding weather that correctly dignosed TB or not . And if TB confirm how to manage the LFT levels under medication.. Presently taking RCINIC KID AND PYZINA KID tabs supporting Bcomplex. Experts kindly suggest
ANGRYBIRD Wednesday, February 27, 2013
Does TB leaves a scar on the X-ray after sucking mucus from the left side of the chest ?Which disease is that which leaves such a scar?
Divyasurya Friday, January 11, 2013
Does treatment make you tired all the time and your arms and legs sore and cold. I dont feel like eating at all. What supplements can I take or shakes that I can take when taking treatment.And can you be pregnant when taking this medication and is there any risks with the baby.
Zinhle Friday, January 11, 2013
Hey all, its been 1 week now after i completed 6 months of treatment[for enlarged lymb nodes]. Feel normal so far. For all those starters who are taking tb treatment there might be difficulty when taking the drugs at initial stage. However once the body gets used to anti biotics, it just gets normal. Initially first month your body will be put to the test since you might have fever, nausea, headaches etc. This is a good sign since it shows that the anti-biotics is working. Best sign is that there will be fever initially and then it one day (after three weeks of treatment) , just disappears. But please do take care to take the medications at the right time and try to never miss any dose. two liver enzymes will show elevated levels, which is normal. Not a panic situation. However if you have nausea which is abnormal, then please check Liver test function. Tb drugs are all designed to SEARCH AND DESTROY the tb germs. And please dont forget to google everything that you see abnormal. Best of luck !!!
BIG_BOSS Sunday, August 12, 2012
Hi .... can you please tell me as to how did you get your TB of Lymph Node diagnosed .... I have 2 small lymph nodes enlarged on the right side of my neck. I did a FNAC and the report was negative for Granulomas or malignancy. Hence TB or Cancer is ruled out. The Lymph nodes are still there [~1-1.5 cm]and there is a slight pain and discomfort in my neck. I dont want to start TB medicines without proper diagnosis and a concluded TB. Can you please guide me as to how was your diagnosis done? Anyone else also, please guide me with your experiences.
malasar Friday, December 21, 2012
hi..i also have 3 lymphnodes on my ryt neck and 2 others ryt above my right chest swolen..i,ve been diagnosed and found to have doctor advised me to take anti tb drugs which is the quadtab[refampicin,isoniazid,ethambutol,pyrazinamide] for 2months and 4mos of tritab (refampicin,isoniazid,ethambutol)..and yes for the first month i have a lot of abnormal feeling with my body,always dizzy,low apetite,weakness and its my 3rd month taking these medicines and i can see and feel that my lymphnodes reduce its size but it stop to get smaller since my 2nd month of treatment,will it be gone if i finished my 6month treatment?
rayven Sunday, February 24, 2013
I am diagnosed with Cervical Lymphnode TB too. I got chest X-RAY, Ultrasound and FNAC done. X RAY was normal, Ulrasound showed multiple cervical level-2 lymph nodes; biggest having diameter around 3 cm. FNAC test had signs of TB. Doc started the treatment with AKURIT-4 for 2 months then AKURIT-3. Initially for 2 months I had multiple problems; as in dizziness, tiredness, head ache,stomach pain, heart burns,heavy eyes, sleepless nights, 3-4 times chills,vomiting sensation, burning sensation in hands etc. Then after starting AKURIT-3 I had severe body pain for 2 days, now things are better; just my eyes remains heavy and have to give them rest every now and then. Also, other side effects like head ache are there but dont bother much as I am psychological ready for them and have a positive attitude. Its been 3 months now; feeling better. Nodes decreased considerably in size for first month but now from last two months its size is more or less same.I will go to doc in a week's time.
VandyB Wednesday, August 14, 2013
These diseases are really hazardous in terms of personal health & family life. Can stem cell treatments help in curing these diseases. I am very inquisitive!
Advancells Wednesday, August 14, 2013
i was found with tb of lymphynodes and i was put on a drug called Rifampicin and vitamin b6 and biggest problem now is i cant eat nausea,weak,headaches,fever.what should i do?
carolmwansa Wednesday, June 20, 2012
Which Doctor do i need to consult to get treatment for Tuberculosis in Hyderabad. Do i need to consult Physician or any specialist doctor or MD.
ammmu Monday, June 11, 2012
Yes, you need to consult physician. Hope you have done that already.
nondoc Wednesday, July 18, 2012
my mother 62 year[Diabetic] is diagnose from TB .she has taking ante TB drug since 45 days.After taking drug she has relief from fever and cough but vomiting tendency has been started.The doctor has advised to do blood test like SGPT(104) and serum belirumin (1.45).After seeing blood test report Dr has advised to stop TB drug for 10 days.Whether this treatment is correct or not? Kindly give us advice
opsingh73243 Tuesday, May 29, 2012
yes it is right,some of the anti tb drugs esp rifampicin can cause acute liver damage, your sgpt has increased from normal 45 to 104,suggesting some liver att has to be stoppedfor few days and can be restsrted with lft monitoring
chestdss Friday, June 8, 2012
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