Treatment and Prevention of Leishmaniasis (Kala-Azar)

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Treatment and Prevention of Leishmaniasis (Kala-Azar)

Cutaneous and Mucosal Leishmaniasis (Kala-azar)

Small, inconspicuous skin lesions may heal by themselves, even without treatment. This can take months or even years. Ugly scars are often left behind. If the sores are large or located in cosmetically important sites, then treatment has to be called for.

Drugs like Pentavalent antimony, Amphotericin B, Pentamidine isethionate are available as injections. The association of pentavalent antimony with toxicity is known. These drugs are hence used with great caution. Oral drugs such as fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole are also used.

Visceral Leishmaniasis

Liposomal amphotericin B is a highly effective and well tolerated drug. But its use in developing countries is limited by the high cost. Drugs containing pentavalent antimony are widely used. The development of resistance against this drug is posing threats to treatment of leishmaniasis in India. However in such areas where resistance is present, the drug miltefosine has been found to be effective.

Severe (advanced) cases of visceral leishmaniasismay lead to death if left untreated.

Prevention of Leishmaniasis

There are no available vaccines that can prevent leishmaniasis. The best way is to protect oneself from being bitten by sandflies. When travelling to places notorious to harbour this disease, try to reduce outdoor activities from dusk to dawn, i.e. when the sandflies are active. Minimize the amount of exposed skin; use insect repellents; stay in well-screened areas; use bed nets (medicated ones if possible).

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JobKS11

Kala azar is highly suspected to be prevalent in NAGALAND, INDIA in both forms; Cutaneous and Visceral; Lack of Diagnostic Kits and knowledge of those Doctors at Kohima and Dimapur where most patients come for treatment is a problem.Most of them are ignorant of Kala azar. The State NVBDCP needs to gear up its resources for case detection. Few cases are suspected to be having Cutaneous Leishmaniasis,Few or one was recently confirmed of VL other forms cannot be ruled out. Kala azar is the 5th/6th most fatal parasitic disease.Experienced Doctors need be posted at State run major hospitals under HFW with a purpose to identify,diagnose and treat these fatal vector borne disease.They can be trained later in the process in ADVANCED Degree or DIPLOMA courses and also in TROPICAL medicine particularly Doctors with Public Health background like; DPH,DMCW these are time tested courses relevent in the present context, they are newly regulated as well- i.e. advantage, Nagaland.One thing is for sure there is KALA AZAR cases in Nagaland.

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