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Endocrine system

Last Updated on Dec 01, 2023
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Endocrine Glands

  • The major endocrine glands in the human body are the pineal, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenals, pancreas, ovaries (female), and testes (male).

Hormones

  • The human body contains 50 amazing hormones, which regulate activities like sleep, body temperature, hunger, growth and development, and managing stress in times of crisis (1 Trusted Source
    Overview of the Endocrine System

    Go to source
    ).
  • The term "hormone" was introduced in 1905, and "endocrinology" was introduced in 1909 (2 Trusted Source
    Emergence of the concept of endocrine function and endocrinology

    Go to source
    ).

Neuroendocrine System

  • The endocrine system works together with the nervous system to regulate growth, reproduction, and metabolism. They are called the neuro endocrine system (3 Trusted Source
    Endocrine disorders and the neurologic manifestations

    Go to source
    ).
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Stress and Hormones

  • The endocrine system produces cortisol and other steroid hormones that help the body respond to stress (4 Trusted Source
    Physiology, Stress Reaction

    Go to source
    ).
  • Physical and emotional stress causes the endocrine system to produce more hormones.

Hormones of the Hypothalamus

  • The hypothalamus produces hormones that help to regulate body temperature, heart rate, sleep, sex drive, hunger, and thirst (5 Trusted Source
    Physiology, Hypothalamus

    Go to source
    ).
  • Hormones secreted by the hypothalamus are gonadotropin-releasing hormone, growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), oxytocin, somatostatin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, vasopressin, dopamine, and thyrotropin-releasing hormone.
Know Your Endocrine System

Ductless Gland

  • The endocrine glands do not have any ducts and transfer hormones directly into the bloodstream. They are referred to as the ductless glands.

Pituitary Gland

  • The pituitary gland is a small, pea-sized gland located at the base of the brain and controlled by the hypothalamus (6 Trusted Source
    Physiology, Pituitary Gland

    Go to source
    ).
  • The pituitary gland is referred to as the body’s master gland as it controls the activity of most other hormone-secreting glands (7 Trusted Source
    Pituitary gland and hormones

    Go to source
    ).

Pancreas

  • The pancreas is a small organ that has both exocrine and endocrine functions. It helps with digestion and regulates blood sugar.
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Thyroid Gland

  • The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland located in the lower part of the neck (8 Trusted Source
    Physiology, Exocrine Gland

    Go to source
    ).
  • Thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and calcitonin are the hormones produced by the thyroid gland (9 Trusted Source
    Histology, Thyroid Gland

    Go to source
    ).
  • Iodine is an essential element for the production of thyroid hormones (10 Trusted Source
    The role of iodine in human growth and development

    Go to source
    ).
  • Thyroid function will decrease with age (11 Trusted Source
    Hypothyroidism in the older population

    Go to source
    ).

Adrenal Gland

  • The adrenal gland is a small, triangular-shaped gland found on both sides of the kidney. This gland is composed of two parts: the medulla and the cortex (12 Trusted Source
    Physiology, Adrenal Gland

    Go to source
    ).
  • Adrenal hormones help regulate the immune system, blood pressure, metabolism, and the body's salt and water balance.
  • Adrenaline or epinephrine is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands that plays a vital role in the fight or flight response.

Pineal Gland

  • The pineal gland is a small, tiny cone-shaped gland located in the center of the brain. It is also known as the "Seat of the Soul" and the "Third Eye" (13 Trusted Source
    Physiology of the Pineal Gland and Melatonin

    Go to source
    ).
  • Melatonin is a natural hormone produced by the pineal gland that helps control the circadian cycle of sleep and wakefulness (14 Trusted Source
    Melatonin, the Hormone of Darkness: From Sleep Promotion to Ebola Treatment

    Go to source
    ).

References:

  1. Overview of the Endocrine System - (https://www.epa.gov/endocrine-disruption/overview-endocrine-system)
  2. Emergence of the concept of endocrine function and endocrinology - (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15492974/ )
  3. Endocrine disorders and the neurologic manifestations - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4316409/ )
  4. Physiology, Stress Reaction - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK541120/)
  5. Physiology, Hypothalamus - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK535380/)
  6. Physiology, Pituitary Gland - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459247/ )
  7. Pituitary gland and hormones - (https://www.healthdirect.gov.au/pituitary-gland#)
  8. Physiology, Exocrine Gland - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK542322/)
  9. Histology, Thyroid Gland - (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31869123/#)
  10. The role of iodine in human growth and development - (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21802524/)
  11. Hypothyroidism in the older population - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367787/)
  12. Physiology, Adrenal Gland - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537260/ )
  13. Physiology of the Pineal Gland and Melatonin - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK550972/)
  14. Melatonin, the Hormone of Darkness: From Sleep Promotion to Ebola Treatment - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4334454/)
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