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Reproductive System

Last Updated on Dec 21, 2023
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Female Reproductive Organs

  • The female reproductive organs include the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and external genital organs.

Male Reproductive Organs

  • The male reproductive organs include the penis, testicles, epididymis, vas deferens, and prostate gland (1 Trusted Source
    Review: Introduction to the Reproductive System

    Go to source
    ).

Smallest and Largest cell

  • The ovum is the largest cell in the human body, with a diameter of 0.1 mm.
  • The sperm is the smallest cell in the human body (2 Trusted Source
    Molecular Biology of the Cell

    Go to source
    ).
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Lifespan of an Ovary

  • Female ovaries contain about 1-2 million eggs at birth, but only 300,000 ovaries make it to puberty (3 Trusted Source
    Biological versus chronological ovarian age: implications for assisted reproductive technology

    Go to source
    ).
  • An egg can have a lifespan of 12-24 hours after it is released from the ovary, while a sperm can have a lifespan of 36 hours (4 Trusted Source
    Natural methods of family planning

    Go to source
    ).

Sperm Production

  • A healthy male testes can produce around 500 million sperm cells daily, and these testes can also release up to 75 million or more sperm cells during an ejaculation (5 Trusted Source
    Semen analysis

    Go to source
    ).
  • The process of sperm production (spermatogenesis) requires an optimal temperature that is around 2-3 ºC lower than the normal human body temperature; this is why the scrotum, which contains testicles, is present outside the body (6 Trusted Source
    The process of spermatogenesis liberates significant heat and the scrotum has a role in body thermoregulation

    Go to source
    ).
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Male Hormone

  • Androgens are the hormones that are responsible for 'manly' characteristics in men. A deep voice, body hair, height, and muscle mass are some of these characteristics (7 Trusted Source
    Androgens and hair growth

    Go to source
    ).

Sexual Function

  • Alcoholism, smoking, and drug abuse greatly reduce sexual function, while exercise and a healthy diet can improve it (8 Trusted Source
    The risk of sexual dysfunction associated with alcohol consumption in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Go to source
    ).
Know Your Reproductive System

Ovulation

  • Ovulation is the process by which a mature egg is released from one of the ovaries during the menstrual cycle.
  • Ovulation usually occurs once a month, about two weeks before the start of next menstural period.

Fertilization

  • A zygote is a fertilized egg cell that is formed by the fusion of both the sperm and the ovum (9 Trusted Source
    Embryology, Week 1

    Go to source
    ).
  • Fertilization is mostly possible when the female is in the middle of her menstrual cycle. This is when the hormones promoting pregnancy are at their peak (10 Trusted Source
    Menstrual Cycle Proliferative And Follicular Phase

    Go to source
    ).

Female Uterus

  • A female uterus is about 3 inches long and 2 inches wide normally, but during pregnancy, the uterus can expand up to 20 times its normal size. The uterus contains one of the strongest muscles in the female body (11 Trusted Source
    Anatomy, Abdomen and Pelvis: Uterus

    Go to source
    ).
  • Fallopian tubes are about 12 cm long and only as wide as a sewing needle (12 Trusted Source
    Anatomy, Abdomen and Pelvis: Fallopian Tube

    Go to source
    ).
  • The cervix is a small, cylindrical, and conical canal that can be referred to as the “neck of the uterus.” (13 Trusted Source
    Physiology, Uterus

    Go to source
    )

Pregnancy

  • At 8 weeks of pregnancy, vital organs like the brain, heart, skin, and stomach are all developed within the embryo, measuring only an adult’s thumb (14 Trusted Source
    Fetal Development: Week 8

    Go to source
    )

References:

  1. Review: Introduction to the Reproductive System - (https://training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/reproductive/review.html)
  2. Molecular Biology of the Cell - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26914/)
  3. Biological versus chronological ovarian age: implications for assisted reproductive technology - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2764709/)
  4. Natural methods of family planning - (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3091823/)
  5. Semen analysis - (https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003627.htm)
  6. The process of spermatogenesis liberates significant heat and the scrotum has a role in body thermoregulation - (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17011725/)
  7. Androgens and hair growth - (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18844710/)
  8. The risk of sexual dysfunction associated with alcohol consumption in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10155345/ )
  9. Embryology, Week 1 - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK554562/)
  10. Menstrual Cycle Proliferative And Follicular Phase - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK542229/)
  11. Anatomy, Abdomen and Pelvis: Uterus - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470297/)
  12. Anatomy, Abdomen and Pelvis: Fallopian Tube - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK547660/)
  13. Physiology, Uterus - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557575/)
  14. Fetal Development: Week 8 - (https://www.michigan.gov/mdhhs/adult-child-serv/informedconsent/michigans-informed-consent-for-abortion-law/procedures/fetaldevelopment/fetal-development-week-8# )
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