Endocrine System

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Similar to plants, certain special chemicals called hormones regulate the various activities of our body. Hormones are chemical messengers, which help in controlling and coordinating the activities of the body. They are produced by endocrine glands. The hormone in other words acts as a switch or a trigger for a certain action to take place.

The endocrine glands are under the control of the nervous system.

The endocrine system of human beings consists of the following glands:

1. Hypothalamus And Pituitary Gland
2. The Pineal Gland
3. The Thyroid Gland
4. The Parathyroid Glands
5. The Adrenal Glands
6. Islets Of Langerhans
7. Ovaries (Female)
8. Testes (Male)

Sl. No. Endocrine Glands Location Hormone Action
1 Pituitary (Master Gland) Base of fore brain, pea shaped Growth Hormone Regulates the growth of bone and tissue.
      Anti-diuretic hormone Controls amount of water reabsorbed by the kidney
      Adreno corticotrophic hormone Defending the body against physiological stress eg. exposure to cold Follicle stimulating hormone Stimulates ovary to produce female hormone
      Thyroid stimulating hormone Stimulates thyroid to produce its hormone
2 Thyroid Neck of lower extremity of larynx, butterfly shaped Thyroxine Regulates rate of growth and metabolism. Too little over weight and sluggishness. Too much- thinning and over activity.
3 Adrenal A Pair of cap shaped organs above each kidney Cortisone Aids in conversion of proteins to sugar, cortex of this gland produces the hormone.
4 Pancreas Itís a double gland Insulin Regulates Sugar metabolism. Too little insulin leads to high sugar level in blood and weakness (a condition called diabetes).
5 Ovary Lie on the lateral walls of the pelvis Estrogen Development of Secondary sexual characters. Eg. Development of breasts in female.
6 Testis In the scrotum Testosterone Development of many masculine features such as growth of moustaches and beard.


  1. Overview of the Endocrine System - (
  2. Emergence of the concept of endocrine function and endocrinology - (
  3. Endocrine disorders and the neurologic manifestations - (
  4. Physiology, Stress Reaction - (
  5. Physiology, Hypothalamus - (
  6. Physiology, Pituitary Gland - (
  7. Pituitary gland and hormones - (
  8. Physiology, Exocrine Gland - (
  9. Histology, Thyroid Gland - (
  10. The role of iodine in human growth and development - (
  11. Hypothyroidism in the older population - (
  12. Physiology, Adrenal Gland - (
  13. Physiology of the Pineal Gland and Melatonin - (
  14. Melatonin, the Hormone of Darkness: From Sleep Promotion to Ebola Treatment - (

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