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E.N.T system

Last Updated on May 15, 2035
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Parts of the Ear

  • The ear structures are categorized into three major parts: the external ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear (1 Trusted Source
    Parts of the Ear

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    ).
  • The middle ear contains three auditory ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes), which are the smallest bones in the human body (2 Trusted Source
    Anatomy, Head and Neck, Ear Ossicles

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    ).
  • The cochlea is a snail-shaped structure filled with fluid in the inner ear. It contains approximately 15,000 tiny hair cells (3 Trusted Source
    Hair cells

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    ).
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Sound and Hearing

  • The human ear can detect sound wave frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz (4 Trusted Source
    The Audible Spectrum

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    ).
  • Fetal ears form around the 20th week of pregnancy and you can hear the sound during the last trimester of pregnancy (5 Trusted Source
    Fetal hearing

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    ).

Ear Wax

  • Ears are self-cleaning! Earwax (cerumen) acts as a protective barrier that traps foreign particles.
  • The wax present inside the ear is made up of oil and sweat (6 Trusted Source
    Ear Irrigation

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    ).

Eustachian Tube

  • The Eustachian tube connects the middle ear to the throat, and it is responsible for balancing air pressure between the atmosphere and the middle ear (7 Trusted Source
    Anatomy, Head and Neck, Ear Eustachian Tube

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    ).

Nose

  • Humans can detect at least one trillion different odors (8 Trusted Source
    Smell

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    ).

Gender Differences and Smell

  • Women have a better sense of smell than men (9 Trusted Source
    Sex Differences in Human Olfaction: A Meta-Analysis

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    ).
  • During pregnancy, many women develop a stronger sense of smell (10 Trusted Source
    Pregnancy and olfaction: a review

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    ).
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Newborn’s Sense of Smell

  • Newborns respond to both artificial and natural odors as early as their first day of life (11 Trusted Source
    Clinical Usefulness of Maternal Odor in Newborns: Soothing and Feeding Preparatory Responses

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    ).
  • Within 10 seconds of birth, the baby takes the first breath (12 Trusted Source
    Changes in the newborn at birth

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    ).

Nasal Hairs

  • Nasal hairs, also known as vibrissae, are found in the nostrils and help to filter inhaled particles and collect moisture (13 Trusted Source
    Nose, Nasal Cavities, & Paranasal Sinuses

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    ).

Throat

  • The throat serves as a pathway for air, food, and liquid.

Vocal Folds

  • The larynx (voice box) is found between the base of the tongue and the top of the trachea, which is the pathway to the lungs (14 Trusted Source
    Anatomy, Head and Neck: Larynx

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    ).
  • The human voice is produced by the vibration of the vocal folds, which are two muscular bands located opposite each other in the larynx (15 Trusted Source
    Mechanics of human voice production and control

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    ).
  • When you are not speaking, your vocal folds remain open to allow you to breathe (16 Trusted Source
    Taking Care of Your Voice

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    ).

Human Speech

  • Over 100 different muscles work together to produce human speech (17 Trusted Source
    Laryngeal Motor Cortex and Control of Speech in Human

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    ).
  • Human speech and a bird's song have similar characterizations (18 Trusted Source
    Birdsong and human speech: common themes and mechanisms

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    ).
  • Whispering causes more vocal cord strain and laryngeal trauma than normal speech.

References:

  1. Parts of the Ear - (https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hearingloss/parentsguide/understanding/partsoftheear.html )
  2. Anatomy, Head and Neck, Ear Ossicles - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK570549)
  3. Hair cells - (https://www.noisyplanet.nidcd.nih.gov/have-you-heard/new-hair-cells-need-to-stand-in-formation-to-reverse-hearing-loss)
  4. The Audible Spectrum - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK10924)
  5. Fetal hearing - (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3061844/)
  6. Ear Irrigation - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459335/)
  7. Anatomy, Head and Neck, Ear Eustachian Tube - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482338/)
  8. Smell - (https://www.nih.gov/news-events/nih-research-matters/humans-can-identify-more-1-trillion-smells)
  9. Sex Differences in Human Olfaction: A Meta-Analysis - (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30814965)
  10. Pregnancy and olfaction: a review - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3915141/)
  11. Clinical Usefulness of Maternal Odor in Newborns: Soothing and Feeding Preparatory Responses - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2046216/)
  12. Changes in the newborn at birth - (https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002395.htm)
  13. Nose, Nasal Cavities, & Paranasal Sinuses - (https://training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/respiratory/passages/nose.html)
  14. Anatomy, Head and Neck: Larynx - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK538202/)
  15. Mechanics of human voice production and control - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5412481/)
  16. Taking Care of Your Voice - (https://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/taking-care-your-voice)
  17. Laryngeal Motor Cortex and Control of Speech in Human - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3077440)
  18. Birdsong and human speech: common themes and mechanisms - (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10202549/)
  19. Laryngeal hyperfunction during whispering: reality or myth? - (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16503476/)
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