All of us know at leat one person suffering from diabetes. This sums up the prevalence of diabetes. Apart from being one of the most prevalent diseases in the world, it is a disease that opens up the pandora's box of many complications. No wonder it is a dreaded disease and people who are diabetic end up with other medical issues as well.
Diabetes is a group of diseases with one thing in common - a problem with insulin. The problem could be that your body either doesn't make any insulin, doesn't make enough insulin or doesn't use insulin properly.
How is Insulin formed ?
The pancreas, which is an organ present in the abdominal cavity of the body, secretes this hormone insulin. This hormone is the key to the way your body processes food, as it helps maintain proper sugar levels (glucose) in your blood. Glucose is your body's fuel. Cells use glucose to produce energy to grow and function. Glucose is escorted by insulin through your bloodstream and insulin helps in unlocking cells to allow glucose to enter.
In diabetes, lack of insulin or the resistance of your cells to insulin prevents the right amount of glucose from entering your cells. The unused glucose builds up in your blood, a condition called hyperglycemia.
What are the Types of Diabetes?
The disease occurs in two types:
Type 1 Diabetes :
In this type of diabetes, the pancreas produces little or no insulin
This type of diabetes generally affects 4-7 years olds or 10-14 years olds and requires treatment with insulin
This is the most common type of diabetes, it generally develops after the age of 40
In this type of diabetes, the cells in the muscles, liver, and fat tissues fail to utilize insulin effectively and this results in the rise of the blood glucose levels
Type 2 diabetes can also occur in pregnant women and then can be called gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)
Diabetes can develop gradually, often without symptoms, over many years. It may reveal itself too late to prevent damage. In fact, you may first learn you have diabetes when you develop one of its common complications - heart disease, kidney disease or vision problems.
Today, better methods of diabetes control, new medications and easier ways to take insulin enable most people who develop type 1 or 2 diabetes to live a long and healthy life.
Facts on Diabetes
According to the national diabetic statistics report, an estimated 23.1 million people or 7.2% of the US population have been diagnosed with diabetes.
In this estimate, about 1,32,000 and 1,93,000 of them are children and adolescents under 18 and 20 years
In 2015, American Indian or Alaskan natives had seen the highest prevalence of diagnosed diabetes. Diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death in the United States
According to a leading newspaper, the global burden of type-2 diabetes is set to increase to 438 million by 2030 from 285 million people (recorded in 2010)
India is the diabetes capital of the world. The country has around 50 million people suffering from the type-2 diabetes
According to the International Diabetic Federation, 1 in 11 adults in the world have diabetes, and some 46.5% of adults with diabetes are undiagnosed
Diabetes is the number one cause of kidney failure in the world. Diabetes is also an important cause of heart disease, stroke and cataract
The major cause of increase in the incidence of diabetes is a sedentary lifestyle. Exercise and diet can either reduce or delay the incidence of diabetes by over 50%
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 80 % of diabetic deaths occur in low and middle-income countries and an estimated 1.6 million deaths were directly caused by diabetes in 2015
In 2015, the direct and indirect cost of undiagnosed diabetes in the United States was around $245 billion