Albuterol or salbutamol is a short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, used to prevent and treat wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); a group of diseases that affect the lungs and airways.
It relaxes the smooth muscles in the airway, which allows air to flow in and out of the lungs more easily.
Salbutamol has been used in treating acute hyperkalemia on account of its potassium-depleting properties by stimulating potassium inflow in cells.
PO- The usual starting dose is 1.25 mg or 0.63 mg, 3 or 4 times daily.
The emergency room treatment is a massive dose of Salbutamol given by aerosol nebulization in doses of > 7.5 mg / hour and continued until the side effects of tremor or tachycardia are evident in patients.
Usual Adult Albuterol Dose for Acute Asthma and Acute Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - Metered-dose inhaler: 2 puffs every 4 to 6 hours as needed.
Inhalation capsules: 200 mcg inhaled every 4 to 6 hours and may increase to 400 mcg inhaled every 4 to 6 hours, if necessary.
Bronchospasm Prophylaxis: Metered-dose inhaler: 2 puffs (180 or 216 mcg) 15 minutes before exercise. Inhalation capsules: 200 mcg inhaled 15 minutes before exercise.
Less than 1 year: Nebulizer: 0.05 to 0.15 mg/kg/dose every 4 to 6 hours with subsequent doses titrated based on clinical response.
1 year to 4 years: Nebulizer: 1.25 to 2.5 mg every 4 to 6 hours with subsequent doses titrated based on clinical response.
5 years or older: Metered-dose inhaler (HFA): 2 puffs (216 mcg) every 4 to 6 hours as needed. Inhalation capsules: 200 mcg inhaled every 4 to 6 hours and may increase to 400 mcg inhaled every 4 to 6 hours, if necessary.
12 years or older: Nebulizer: 2.5 to 5 mg every 6 hours as needed.
It comes as a tablet, capsule and syrup to take by mouth, on an empty stomach.
It also comes as a solution for injection to be administered by a healthcare provider either into the large muscle or under the skin.
• Caution should be exercised in patients with history of heart disease, high blood pressure, or congestive heart failure, a heart rhythm disorder; epilepsy, diabetes, overactive thyroid, kidney problems, adrenal gland tumor, who are taking other medications, any allergy, elderly, children, during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
• It may cause dizziness, do not drive a car or operate machinery while taking this medication.
• An inhaler should not be given to a child younger than 4 years old.
• Albuterol solution in a nebulizer should not be given to a child younger than 2 years of age.
• Most Common :
Tremor, anxiety, headache, muscle cramps, dry mouth, and palpitations.
• Central nervous system : Sleeplessness, weakness, dizziness, drowsiness.
• Heart : Fast / slow heart rate, flushing and chest pain.
• Musculoskeletal : Muscle cramps, muscle, bone or back pain.
• Gastrointestinal : Nausea, worsening of diabetes, vomiting.
• Respiratory : Inflammation of bronchus, nose bleed, cough and throat irritation.
• Skin : Allergic reactions and rash.
♦• Miscellaneous : Flu symptoms, metabolic acidosis.
This medication may affect blood sugar level; monitor blood sugar level regularly.
Avoid excess dosage.
Store it at controlled room temperature (between 2°C and 25°C). Protect from light and excessive heat.
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