Last Updated on Oct 23, 2019

Diagnosis

Majority of the people do not exhibit the typical ‘symptoms and signs’ of diabetes and are unaware of its existence until complications set in.

Early diagnosis of type 2 diabetes leads to early treatment which prevents damage to body organs.

Diagnosis must be carried out by testing venous blood samples and not urine samples. A Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) is the most ideal test to rule out if a person is diabetic or not.

Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT)

  • The person must be on a regular routine of exercises, diet
  • Blood is drawn after a fasting period of at least 8 hours
  • After the initial blood collection, 75 gms of anhydrous glucose dissolved in water is given orally
  • The person must rest through the test and must not smoke in between
  • Blood is drawn for testing again after two hours of glucose ingestion

The diagnostic values are given below:

Diabetes Mellitus

Fasting >/= 110

2 hrs after glucose load >/= 180

Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT)

Fasting -<110

After glucose load ->=120/ &<180

These patients will have other complications such as hypertension, obesity and lipid disorders

Impaired fasting glycemia

Fasting >/=100 & <110

In this case only the fasting test may be carried out.

Management and Prevention

Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a disease that has serious implications. It has the potential to damage body organs such as the eyes, kidneys and the heart.

However it may be heartening to know that the disease can be largely managed by a conscious change in a person’s lifestyle which mainly comprises of regular exercises and healthy eating.

Regular exercising for 30 min/day, 5 times a week, is known to bring about a dramatic reduction in the glycemic level (even without weight loss) besides reducing visceral adipose tissues and plasma triglyceride levels.

However cholesterol levels can not be reduced or brought under control through exercises.

Individuals with pre diabetes exhibit the following:

  • Increased plasma glucose levels in the fasting state and after an oral glucose load (glucose intolerance)
  • Overweight /Obesity especially due to a sedentary lifestyle

Modifying the risk factors through lifestyle- intervention programs, combined with the administration of drugs such as Metformin, plays a huge role in preventing or delaying the onset of diabetes.

Lifestyle intervention programs to control type 2 diabetes are:

Weight loss- This can be brought about by physical activity and a low fat, high fiber diet. Using Body mass index (BMI) can help to find out if a person is underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese. BMI is a measure of body weight in comparison to height.

BP and cholesterol control- BP and cholesterol must be controlled by regular exercising, proper diet and medications.

Stress management –Stress may not directly bring about diabetes, but it has the ability to aggravate the risk in a predisposed person. Therefore stress must be always kept in check for a more healthy life.

Regular monitoring- Regular monitoring of blood glucose levels is essential in controlling the disease.

Reference

  1. Childhood Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Tamara S. Hannon, MD, Goutham Rao, MD, Silva A. Arslanian, MD
    Published online August 1, 2005
    PEDIATRICS Vol. 116 No. 2 August 2005, pp. 473-480 (doi:10.1542/peds.2004-2536)
  2. Diabetes India - (http://diabetesindia.com/)

Comments

meggin Saturday, July 21, 2012

i was tested for type 2 a few months ago and every thing fine so why now am i having a screening test again> what are the chances?? i an going to the toilet more often,i want to eat all the time,and i am taking cold sores on my mouth more often..please help

Indian12 Wednesday, December 14, 2011

My PP sugar value is 159.Can anyone tel me,whether iam diabetic ? Do i need to go for any further diabetic test?

sbsidh Thursday, December 16, 2010

hi, I am from INDIA.1ST THING ,I WANT TO SAY THANKS TO THIS BLOG TO GIVE VERY IMP TIPS FOR ALL DIABETIC PEOPLE.what ever has been mantioned above is almost the True fact of human body.little bit of self dicipline AND little bit of carefullness in eating habbit can reduce 80% of chances of gettin victim of sugar disease.untill now i have never com across any one who has got cured with diabetes after starting tablets or insulin.infact ihave seen people getting cured by other means of medication with combination of doing exercise and walking..i have been helping people to reduce sugar and with gods wish and with patient cooperation many of them have managed to stop tables.drinking of lot of water and herbal medicine does help people to clear toxins and reduce sugar level.unless person doesn't follow strict rules its very difficult to reduce sugar.if person doesn't controll sugar in proper time period, then there is lot of health problem expected from feat to head.so be active keep eye on your weight,food habits.do little exercise to release your energy which reduces sugar. thank you sb

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