Diabetes can affect the eyes in a number of ways. Diabetic retinopathy is one of the major complications of diabetes, along with neuropathy (damage of the peripheral nerves) and nephropathy (damage to the kidneys). Diabetic retinopathy usually affects both the eyes.
The human eye has three layers. The outermost layer is called sclera. The middle layer of the eye is called the uvea, and the innermost layer is called the retina. The retina is the light-sensitive membrane of the eye. When light enters the eye, the cornea and lens focus the light onto the retina. The central area of the retina, called the macula, contains millions of nerve endings packed closely together. These nerve endings are responsible for the sharpness of the visual image. The retina converts the image into electrical impulses that are carried to the brain by the optic nerve. So, without the retina, the eye cannot communicate with the brain and vision is lost.
Diabetic retinopathy can affect-
► Type I (juvenile onset) diabetics
► Type II (adult onset) diabetics
► Pregnant women with diabetes.
Approximately 90% diabetic individuals will eventually develop some degree of retinopathy. On an average, the onset of retinopathy in diabetic individuals takes about 10-20 years following the diagnosis of diabetes.
Retinal changes due to diabetic retinopathy may initially be symptomless. Diabetic retinopathy can be divided into two stages based on examination of retina.
The stages are-
► Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy - Small balloon-like swellings called microaneurysms develop in the blood vessels of the retina. As the disease progresses, some of the blood vessels get blocked. Hence, several areas of the retina are deprived of blood supply and are damaged. These damaged areas signal the body to grow new blood vessels for nourishment.
► Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) - Growth of new blood vessels is triggered. However, the new blood vessels are abnormal and fragile; and severe vision loss can occur if these vessels leak blood.
Treating diabetic retinopathy involves control of blood sugar levels and surgical correction with laser photocoagulation or vitrectomy.
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Help in Early identification of Diabetic Retinopathy
Latest Publications and Research on Diabetic RetinopathyRetinal dysfunction parallels morphologic alterations and precede clinically detectable vascular alterations in Meriones shawi, a model of type 2 diabetes. - Published by PubMed
Parafoveal Nonperfusion Analysis in Diabetic Retinopathy Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography. - Published by PubMed
Molecular and functional characterization of circulating extracellular vesicles from diabetic patients with and without retinopathy and healthy subjects. - Published by PubMed
IL-27 regulates HIF-1a-mediated VEGFA response in macrophages of diabetic retinopathy patients and healthy individuals. - Published by PubMed
Incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy: a systematic review. - Published by PubMed