- Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine reduces the risk of developing cervical cancer
- An improved vaccine called 9vHPV has been developed, apart from the already available Cervarix® and Gardasil®
- 9vHPV vaccine is highly effective in reducing the risk of having HPV 31/33/45/52/58-related cervical cell abnormalities, biopsies, and definitive therapies.
Cervical cancer causes approximately 300,000 deaths annually and is the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Nearly, more than 80 percent of deaths resulting from cervical cancer occur in the developing nations.
The onset of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines was found to notably reduce the number of cervical cancer and their related deaths.
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines
The research team along with those from Moffitt Cancer Center published their final results in The Lancet showing that the newest 9vHPV vaccine is highly effective in preventing HPV infection and disease.
Human papillomavirus (HPV), a widespread virus is estimated to affect four out of five women by age 50, and that they have been infected with the virus at some point in their life.
HPV causes diseases like genital and anal warts, and sometimes the continued infection can develop benign or cancerous growths in the cervix, vagina, anus, vulva, penis, tonsils, and at the base of the tongue.
Nearly, more than 100 types of HPV are present. However, only about 13 of them were found to be linked to the development of cancer and 70 percent of all cervical cancers were estimated to be caused by HPV 16 and 18 alone.
Improved HPV Vaccine
The two existing HPV vaccines called Cervarix® and Gardasil® were found to be very effective in preventing the disease, which is caused by HPV types 16 and 18. At the same time, Gardasil was also found to protect against genital warts, which are caused by HPV 6 and 11. But, the research team found that these vaccines do not protect against all HPV types that were linked with cancer.
The research team developed an improved vaccine called 9vHPV that targets HPV 16, 18, 6, and 11. Also, an additional 5 HPV types were developed, which are the next most commonly linked with cervical cancer - HPV 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58.
Anna R. Giuliano, Ph.D., who's a Director of the Center for Infection Research in Cancer at Moffitt explained that based on the epidemiological studies, they found that the 9vHPV vaccine could prevent:
- Approximately 90 percent of cervical cancer,
- About 90 percent of HPV-related vulvar and vaginal cancer,
- Nearly 70 to 85 percent of high-grade cervical disease in females, and
- About 90 percent of HPV-related anal cancer and genital warts in men and women worldwide.
A phase study was conducted by scientists from 18 countries and 105 study sites to compare the new 9vHPV vaccine activity against the older vaccine called Gardasil, which protected against four HPV types.
The research team randomized 14,215 women aging from 16 to 26 years to either 9vHPV or Gardasil vaccine. The participants of this were followed medically for six years after vaccination.
In this study, the research team found that the 9vHPV vaccine has long-term activity against HPV infection and disease.
Developing the risk of HPV 31/33/45/52/58-associated cervical, vulvar, and vaginal disease was reduced by 97.7 percent with the 9vHPV vaccine than to Gardasil®. However, both the vaccines had similar activity at preventing HPV 6/11/16/18-related disease.
Effect of 9vHPV vaccine
The 9vHPV vaccine was found to be highly effective in reducing the risk of having HPV 31/33/45/52/58-related cervical cell abnormalities, biopsies, and definitive therapies.
To protect men and women who are in the age group of 9 and 26 years against HPV-related cancers and genital warts, 9vHPV also known as Gardasil 9 has become available in 2015.
Using 9vHPV vaccine continually can reduce prevalence and mortality of HPV-related diseases, reveal scientists.
Giuliano said, "The 9vHPV vaccine is licensed in over 40 countries for the prevention of HPV-related anogenital cancers and pre-cancer, and genital warts. The results of this study support comprehensive vaccination programs and inform public health decision related to implementation."
- Warner K Huh, Elmar A Joura, Anna R Giuliano, et al. Final efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety analyses of a nine-valent human papillomavirus vaccine in women aged 16-26 years: a randomised, double-blind trial. The Lancet, (2017).