This medication is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, prescribed for glaucoma, edema due to congestive heart failure, epileptic seizure, idiopathic intracranial hypertension (a.k.a. pseudotumor cerebri), cystinuria, periodic paralysis, central sleep apnea and dural ectasia. It is also used to prevent and reduce the symptoms of altitude or acute mountain sickness and moderate to severe metabolic or respiratory alkalosis. This medication reduces the activity of carbonic anhydrase protein.
Contraindicated in patients with adrenal gland problems, low levels of potassium or sodium in blood, kidney problems, liver problems, high levels of chloride in blood, electrolyte problems and hypersensitivity.
The dose ranges from 250 mg to 1 g of acetazolamide for 24 hours, usually in divided doses for amounts over 250 mg.
Adult- PO Diuresis 250-375 mg/day. Glaucoma; Epilepsy 250-1,000 mg/day. Prophylaxis of high altitude sickness 500-1,000 mg/day. IV Chronic open angle glaucoma 250-1000 mg 24 hrly and Epilepsy 8-30 mg/kg/day in divided doses.
It comes as a tablet and capsule, to take by mouth with food. If you are taking the extended-release form of acetazolamide, do not crush or chew the capsules.
• Caution should be exercised in patients with history of kidney stones, sickle cell anemia, lung diseases, increased eye pressure, respiratory problem, elderly, who are taking other medications, any allergy, during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
• It may cause dizziness, drowsiness or vision changes, do not drive a car or operate machinery while taking this medication.
• Limit alcoholic beverages.
• Avoid exposure to sunlight.
• Monitor blood sugar, complete blood cell count regularly while taking this medication.
• This medication should not be used in children less than 12 because it may affect normal growth.
• Caution is advised for patients receiving concomitant high-dose aspirin and acetazolamide, as anorexia, tachypnea, lethargy, coma and death have been reported.
• Most Common :
Numbness and tingling in the fingers and toes, tiredness, loss of appetite,dry mouth, headache, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain.
• Central Nervous System: Occasional instances of drowsiness and confusion, and seizures.
• ENT: Taste alterations (parageusia) especially for carbonated drinks, sore throat, ringing in the ear, and Some may also experience blurred vision but this usually disappears shortly after discontinuing the medication.
• Genitourinary: Blood in stool/urine, dark urine, painful urination and excessive passage of urination.
• Metabolic: Liver impairment, increases the risk of kidney stones, metabolic acidosis, increased thirst, and electrolyte imbalance.
• Skin: Hives, unusual bleeding or bruising and photosensitivity.
Avoid excess dosage.
Store at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F). Excursions permitted to 15°-30° in an airtight container. Keep it out of reach of children.
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