The causes of aortic stenosis
► Bicuspid and Other Congenitally Abnormal Aortic Valves
A Normal aortic valve has three thin leaflets called cusps (tricuspid). About 1% of the population is born with a bicuspid aortic valve, i.e. with only two cusps in the valve. There exists a male preponderance. Although this abnormality does not usually cause symptoms at birth these valves tend to deteriorate with age. By the time these individuals reach their 40s, 50s, and 60s aortic stenosis may develop.
Congenital aortic stenosis from a unicuspid, bicuspid, or even abnormal tricuspid valve may cause symptoms during childhood and necessitates rectification by adolescence.
► Tricuspid Aortic Valve Stenosis
A previously normal tricuspid aortic valve can also develop thickening and calcification. Stenosis and calcifications were formerly considered to be degenerative processes.
Currents concepts are that this type of aortic stenosis arises from an active inflammatory process.
► Rheumatic Heart Disease
Scarring of the aortic valve due to rheumatic fever as a child or young adult is a rare cause in developed countries. Unfortunately rheumatic heart disease is still rampant in the developing nations.
Latest Publications and Research on Aortic Valve StenosisTranscatheter aortic valve-in-valve implantation in failed stentless bioprostheses. - Published by PubMed
Aortic stenosis and anemia with an update on approaches to managing angiodysplasia in 2018. - Published by PubMed
Supra-annular sizing for transcatheter valve implantation in bicuspid aortic stenosis. - Published by PubMed
Comparison of multiparametric risk scores for predicting early mortality after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. - Published by PubMed
Reference Ranges for the Size of the Fetal Cardiac Outflow Tracts From 13 to 36 Weeks Gestation: A Single-Center Study of Over 7000 Cases. - Published by PubMed