What does a Dental Extraction Procedure Involve?
A dental extraction procedure involves removal of one or more tooth from their sockets and is usually performed under local anesthesia at a dental surgeon’s office. Your dental surgeon will loosen out the tooth to be removed with the help of a special tool called an ‘elevator’. Then, with the help of an extraction forceps, the loosened tooth is pulled out from its place.(1✔)
The empty socket will be closed by placing one or more sutures. If the procedure is more complex and involves removal of several teeth, you will be sedated so that you remain asleep and comfortable throughout the procedure.(2✔)
Although great efforts will be taken to restore and conserve the decayed teeth, there are certain conditions in which a tooth extraction is advised and includes the following:
- Severe dental infection or periapical abscess that results in loose teeth(3✔)
- Infection in the gums and underlying supporting bone (gingivitis and periodontitis) that makes the tooth severely mobile(4✔)
- Crowding of teeth resulting in malocclusion (orthodontic reasons)
- Traumatic injury to the tooth
- Abnormally positioned tooth that may injure the inner lining of your cheek
- Impacted third molars that are causing pain and other problems
- The presence of more than the normal number of teeth in the arch (supernumerary teeth)(5✔)
A tooth extraction procedure is contraindicated or is not performed in the following cases.
- If the tooth to be extracted lies in the area that has been exposed to high amounts of radiation.
- If the tooth has a malignant lesion adjacent to it.
- In the case of a jaw fracture, the teeth on either side of the fracture line should not be removed as they play an important role in fracture stabilization.
- Patients with brittle or poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and hypertension, end-stage kidney and liver disease, leukemia, lymphoma, and irregular heart rate (arrhythmias) cannot undergo dental extraction.
- Extraction of the tooth is not advised in the first and last trimesters of pregnancy.
Tooth extraction may be performed with extreme caution in patients undergoing treatment with long-term immunosuppressive medications, corticosteroids, and cancer chemotherapy. Patients with hemophilia and other bleeding disorders can undergo tooth extraction once these conditions have been cured.(6✔)
The individual will be allowed to return home after a short observation period following the dental extraction procedure. They will be advised to bite down on a gauze piece that will be placed at the extraction site for some time. This helps the formation of a blood clot and also ceases the bleeding. They may feel numbness in their lip and cheek area because of the local anesthesia effect, but this will become normal in some time. Hot foods should be avoided during this time.
They may place an ice pack on their cheek for about 10-20 minutes each time to help reduce swelling. The dentist will advise certain pain relievers and antibiotic medicines that should be taken once pain is felt. In addition, they should take the following precautions in order to ensure an uneventful recovery
- Avoid hard foods for about 7 days and follow a soft diet consisting of yogurt, soup, boiled vegetables, and fruits
- Avoid chewing food on the area where the tooth has been removed
- Avoid smoking cigarettes or use of any tobacco-containing product
- Avoid drinking alcohol for about 24 hours postoperatively as it promotes bleeding and slows down the healing process
- Avoid drinking with a straw for at least a day as it can cause loss of blood clot in the tooth socket
- After a day of tooth extraction, the mouth may be rinsed gently with warm salt water to relieve the swelling and pain(7✔, 8✔)
- Dental Extraction - (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dental_extraction)
- Extractions - (https://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/az-topics/e/extractions)
- Abscessed Teeth - (https://www.aae.org/patients/dental-symptoms/abscessed-teeth/)
- Gum Disease - (https://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/az-topics/g/gum-disease)
- Genetic Background of Supernumerary Teeth - (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4319293/)
- Tooth Extraction - (https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007630.htm)
- What to do Following an Extraction - (https://www.dentalhealth.org/what-to-do-following-an-extraction)
- Tooth Extraction - Health Information - (https://www.uwhealth.org/health/topic/surgicaldetail/tooth-extraction/hw172374.html)
Latest Publications and Research on Dental / Tooth Extraction
- A case report of self-medication with over-the-counter fish antibiotic: Implications for pharmacists. - Published by PubMed
- Role of p53 deficiency in socket healing after tooth extractions. - Published by PubMed
- Impact of maxillary teeth morphology on the failure rate of local anesthesia. - Published by PubMed
- Dentists' clinical decision-making about teeth with apical periodontitis using a variable-controlled survey model in South Korea. - Published by PubMed
- Dental Caries, Developmental Defects of Enamel and Enamel Microhardness Associated with Genetic Polymorphisms in the RANK/RANKL/OPG System. - Published by PubMed