Clove oil, with its principal constituent eugenol, is mainly used in dentistry as an analgesic to relieve dental pain.
Clove oil has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in dentistry as an analgesic (for relief of dental pain), for its use in dental cements, as a fragrance in aromatherapy oils, in transdermal drug delivery systems and in food as a flavoring agent.
Clove oil is obtained by distillation of the flowers, stems and leaves of the clove tree. Its primary and bioactive constituent eugenol (constituting 49 - 87%) is well-known for its therapeutic properties and is widely used in dentistry as an analgesic for toothache, joint pain, and as a antispasmodic.
Clove oil has also been found to possess antimicrobial (works against several bacteria and fungal strains), antiviral, anticancer, antioxidant (a neuroprotective for the treatment of memory deficits caused by oxidative stress), anti inflammatory, insecticidal, antidiabetic and lipid lowering properties.
• Clove oil is contraindicated in people who are hypersensitive to clove oil or eugenol.
• Clove oil should not be used while teething.
• Clove essential oil is generally regarded as a safe (GRAS) substance if used / consumed below the concentrations of 1500 mg/kg.
• The World Heatlth Organization (WHO) has established the daily acceptable quantity of clove per day as 2.5 mg/kg of weight in humans.
• Adults, the elderly and children over 2 years old can use clove oil for dental pain by applying a small amount on a cotton bud directly on the tooth cavity as required.
• Not recommended for use in children under 2 years of age, pregnant women and nursing mothers due to lack of sufficient data
• Since eugenol can slow down blood clotting, caution should be taken when using in people with bleeding disorders and while undergoing any surgeries
• Caution should be taken if the patient is taking drugs, herbs, or supplements that also affect blood clotting
• Skin: Mild skin and mucous membrane irritation, contact dermatitis, inflammation of lips and mouth
• Blood: Blood clotting disorder
• Gastrointestinal: Liver damage
Adverse effects like coma, acidosis, generalized seizure, disordered blood clotting and acute liver damage have been observed in children under 2 years of age who have consumed 5-10 ml of clove oil.
• Ingestion of clove oil can cause adverse effects; this has been reported in children under 2 years of age
• Using too much oil can make patients sensitive to it
• Do not use for eyes, ears or nose
• Avoid contact with the skin and gums; repeated use may cause gum damage
• Clove oil or any of its components must not be used as an anesthetic for fish, especially for long exposures due to toxicity concerns for the fish and to humans consuming them
• Since eugenol can slow down blood clotting, caution should be taken when used with other medications that also slow down the clotting; the combined effect would be increasing the chances of bruising and bleeding.
• Examples of such medications are aspirin, clopidogrel, diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, dalteparin, enoxaparin, heparin, warfarin , and others.
• Store the clove oil below 25°C tightly closed and protected from light.
• The oil is usually available in an amber glass bottle.
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