The Healthcare Inspectorate Wales (HIW) spot checks of wards at the University Hospital of Wales (UHW), the largest in the region and the nearby Llandough Hospital in June found:
Dusty high-level surfaces, radiators and light fittings in Cardiff and Vale NHS Trust hospitals;
a risk of infection from patients using communal toiletries;
empty hand gel dispensers at the University Hospital of Wales;
patients' wash bowls stored underneath beds on the medical rehabilitation and urology wards at UHW;
staff in UHW and Llandough hospital were over-reliant on gloves, rather than washing their hands between patient contacts; and
no hand-washing facilities in bathrooms on the elderly care ward at Llandough Hospital.
The report, published this month highlighted cleanliness and maintenance issues, including cluttered corridors, damaged chairs and broken cupboards.
The Cardiff and Vale NHS Trust has been told it must now submit an action plan to address the issues raised.
Carol Lamyman-Jones, director of the Board of Community Health Councils (CHCs) in Wales pledged CHCs will continue its hospital environment inspections in a bid to raise standards.
Sue Gregory, Cardiff and Vale NHS Trust's nursing director, said: "At Cardiff and Vale NHS Trust, we manage more than 14,000 members of staff across all trust sites.
"We do everything possible to ensure hygiene and cleanliness are top priorities.
"This plays a significant role in our patient safety initiative which is well publicised amongst all staff.
"A particular area working well is the focus on de-cluttering wards in order to manage space better.
"The HIW report has highlighted this initiative as working effectively, which was piloted in one of our medical rehabilitation wards. We are now planning to roll this out to the other areas.
"The trust welcomes the report by HIW and accepts its findings. The trust is now considering those issues highlighted in the report and we are working together with our staff to ensure further enhanced standards in hygiene and cleanliness are implemented."
Cardiff City Football Club was "shown the yellow card" by food hygiene officials earlier this year after health inspectors found evidence of mice in its kitchens, newspapers reported.
Public health inspectors found mouse dropping and nesting materials and described kitchen cleanliness as "generally poor."
The discovery was one of a catalogue of hygiene breaches unearthed in an inspection which took place in March but which has only now been made public.
A further inspection which took place in April said progress had been made in sorting out the problem but added there were still "outstanding issues".
The inspectors reported:
Two-month-old mouse droppings and nesting materials in the storeroom for the club kitchen and mouse droppings in the Grange End kiosk;
another kiosk, The Wedge, had a dirty display cabinet and floor;
the floor of the club kitchen was dirty, particularly below the cooker and other equipment;
the standard of cleaning to the club's international kitchen, including work surfaces, cooker top, floor and shelving was "generally poor";
no hot water or soap was available in the club kitchen to wash hands when preparing food; and
ceilings and walls were peeling.
Cardiff council food safety officer Patrick Horan was "disappointed with the standard of food safety" and added: "I strongly recommend that you seek the services of a food safety management system for the catering operations carried out at this business."
He visited again a month later and in his report said he was "pleased to find that you have made a great deal of progress in such a short time".
The reports were released to by Cardiff council following a request under the Freedom of Information Act.
Reports were also released on Cardiff's other major sporting stadia.
The Millennium Stadium received far less criticism although it was taken to task over a few matters. Inspectors called on its operators to repair damaged kitchen floors and walls and clean dirty ceiling vents and dispatch trolleys.
Staff at Cardiff Arms Park, home of the Blues, were told to clean a dirty ice-making machine and floor covering and install hygienic hand-drying facilities.