Four hallmarks of metastasis namely motility and invasion, modulation of the microenvironment, plasticity and ability to colonize have been discovered by researchers at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and the University of Kansas Cancer Center. Metastasis is believed to be the cause of up to 90 percent of cancer deaths.
Douglas Hurst, Ph.D., assistant professor in the UAB Department of Pathology, and Danny Welch, Ph.D., associate director of Education at the KUCC, conducted a literature review of more than 10,000 publications on metastasis, and published their findings in Cancer Research, from the American Association for Cancer Research.
Metastasis can be very difficult to treat. Virtually any cancer type can form metastatic tumors. The most common sites for cancers to metastasize include the brain, bones, lungs and liver. Other areas include the adrenal gland, lymph nodes, skin and other organs.
"Our attempts to identify the underlying first principles of the metastatic process hopefully provide a means for simplifying the processes that are essential for all metastases to develop," the authors said in the review.
Hurst and Welch identified four hallmarks of metastasis:
Motility and invasion
Modulation of the microenvironment
Ability to colonize
Defining the hallmarks of metastasis has been complicated by both heterogeneity among tumor cells, and the myriad interactions with other molecules and cells throughout the process, according to the authors.
Hurst and Welch say they hope that refining definitions and bringing together diverse data will identify vulnerabilities that metastasis researchers can exploit in the quest to treat cancer metastasis.
Hurst, who also serves as an associate scientist at the O'Neal Comprehensive Cancer Center at UAB, explains why metastasis is hard to understand.