Antibiotic-resistant urinary tract infections are more likely to relapse within a week when compared to non-resistant infections. This can be attributed to an incorrect antibiotic usage, according to a new study published in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, which is the journal of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America.
"This study adds to the evidence that drug-resistant bacteria are an increasing issue, even in the community and even in patients who have something seemingly uncomplicated, like a urinary tract infection," said Judith Anesi, MD, a clinical epidemiologist and an Infectious Disease fellow at Penn Medicine, and lead author of the study.
‘Rational use of antibiotics should be promoted by providing proper education to healthcare providers and patients to avoid the emergence of resistant bacteria.’
"These drug-resistant infections are difficult to treat, and our study shows that relapses are common. This is an alarming finding, and interventions to curb antibiotic resistance are urgently needed."
Focusing on patients whose infections began outside a healthcare setting, researchers reviewed the records of 151 adult patients at Penn Medicine who were seen in emergency rooms, private practice, or within three days of hospitalization and whose urine cultures were positive for antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, a large family of bacteria associated with urinary tract and other common infections.
Specifically, the bacteria were resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, a class of antibiotics commonly used to treat bacterial infections. Those patients were compared with 151 similar patients whose lab tests showed non-resistant forms of the bacteria.
Researchers found that those with the resistant form of the bacteria were more likely to experience worse clinical outcomes than the control group.
Additionally, more than half of all 302 patients in the study failed to receive an appropriate antibiotic within 48 hours of the urine culture, while those with a resistant form of the bacteria were most likely to get the incorrect antibiotic at the outset.
Patients whose urine culture was obtained in the emergency department were most likely to get the appropriate treatment from the start.
Even when patients initially received an antibiotic that would be effective for the bacteria identified in the lab, patients with resistant bacteria continued to have symptoms or had to be treated again for the same infection within a week.
The authors said other explanations for the poor outcomes observed in those with a resistant bacteria included the possibilities of increased virulence of the resistant organisms, unmeasured factors that predisposed these patients to worse outcomes, or more severe baseline infections.
"UTIs are one of the most common bacterial infections we see in the outpatient setting, which makes the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance a significant problem," said Anesi.
The study authors concluded that when resistant organisms are identified in urine tests, patients should be followed closely for a longer duration, and patients at risk for resistant bacteria should have urine collected and tested.
Judith Anesi, Ebbing Lautenbach, Irving Nachamkin, Charles Garrigan, Warren Bilker, Jacqueline Omorogbe, Lois Dankwa, Mary Wheeler, Pam Tolomeo, Jennifer Han. "Poor clinical outcomes associated with community-onset urinary tract infections due to extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae."
Published through a partnership between the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America and Cambridge University Press, Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology provides original, peer- reviewed scientific articles for anyone involved with an infection control or epidemiology program in a hospital or healthcare facility.
ICHE is ranked 19th out of 83 Infectious Disease Journals in the latest Web of Knowledge Journal Citation Reports from Thomson Reuters.
The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) is a professional society representing more than 2,000 physicians and other healthcare professionals around the world who possess expertise and passion for healthcare epidemiology, infection prevention, and antimicrobial stewardship.
The society's work improves public health by establishing infection-prevention measures and supporting antibiotic stewardship among healthcare providers, hospitals, and health systems. This is accomplished by leading research studies, translating research into clinical practice, developing evidence-based policies, optimizing antibiotic stewardship, and advancing the field of healthcare epidemiology.
SHEA and its members strive to improve patient outcomes and create a safer, healthier future for all.
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