Dapagliflozin is a sodium - glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2) which is prescribed to lower the blood sugar levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Dapagliflozin is usually given along with diet and exercise.
The drug mainly acts by causing the kidneys to get rid of glucose in the urine.
Dapagliflozin is contraindicated in patients who are allergic to the drug, have type 1 diabetes or diabetic ketoacidosis (a life-threatening complication of diabetes with a high concentration of ketones in the body), patients with the history of severe kidney disease or kidney failure and bladder cancer (since a few cases of bladder cancer have been noted in patients taking dapagliflozin). It is ineffective in patients with moderate kidney disease and also caused side effects. It should not be prescribed during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
The recommended dose of dapagliflozin is 5mg to be taken once daily in the morning with food or on an empty stomach. The dose can be increased to 10 mg daily if required.
Dapagliflozin comes in the form of a tablet to be taken orally.
• Dapagliflozin may cause serious kidney problems, therefore monitor kidney functions while taking the drug.
• Consult the doctor before having any surgery, even a dental surgery, while taking medicine.
• Get up slowly from the lying position; dapagliflozin may cause low blood pressure resulting in dizziness, lightheadedness or fainting.
• Dapagliflozin interacts with the urine glucose test. A urine glucose test is often carried out to measure the quantity of glucose present in the urine sample of diabetes patients. The urine may test positive for glucose if the patient is taking dapagliflozin even if glucose is absent. Therefore, alternative methods have to be followed to test sugar levels in patients taking dapagliflozin.
• General: Weakness, feeling tired.
• Gastrointestinal: Nausea, vomiting, pain in the stomach.
• Urinary System: Frequent urination which may result in dehydration and low blood pressure; urinary and genital fungal infection or other urinary tract infections resulting in symptoms of burning sensation while urinating, vaginal discharge in women, cloudy urine or penis discharge in men; and reduced kidney function which can cause bone fractures.
• Allergic reactions: Rash, hives, itching of the skin, breathing difficulties, swelling of the face, lips, mouth or the tongue.
• Blood: Low blood sugar levels, increase in cholesterol levels.
• Consuming alcohol may cause changes in the blood sugar level; consult with your physician on the safe use of alcohol while taking dapagliflozin.
• Caution should be exercised in patients with low blood pressure during treatment with dapagliflozin. Low blood volume should be corrected before treatment with dapagliflozin.
• It should be used with caution in patients at a risk for bone fracture.
• Consult your doctor before taking blood pressure and heart medications like enalapril, rampril, losartan, candesartan, irbesartan as dapagliflozin can lead to hypovolemia (condition where blood circulation is low).
• Other antidiabetic medications such as glimepiride, glipizide and insulin can further lower down the blood glucose levels of the patient taking dapagliflozin, sometimes even resulting in hypoglycemia. Other drugs that can alter blood sugars level like quinolone antibiotics and salicylates should also be used with caution.
• Diuretic medications with dapagliflozin might increase the risk of low blood pressure.
Store dapagliflozin in a tightly closed container at room temperature. Protect from excess heat and moisture. Keep out of reach of children.
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