Written by Avinash Ramani, M.S. (Biotechnology) , Aishwarya Radhakrishnan | 
Medically Reviewed by Dr. Lakshmi Venkataraman, MD on Aug 20, 2020

What are the Causes & Risk Factor of Cervical Cancer?

Several factors are implicated as causative, but the sexually transmitted HPV is most commonly linked to cervical cancer

The causes for cervical cancer are not clearly understood, however, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection is strongly associated with it. An infection of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) increases the susceptibility to develop cervical carcinoma. Other risk factors are:

  • Age: Cervical cancer affects mostly the middle-aged, and is seen rarely in women below 15years
  • Smoking: Cigarette smoking women are at twice the risk of developing cervical cancer in comparison to non-smokers
  • Race: Certain races and ethnic groups like African- American, Hispanics and native Americans are genetically predisposed to develop cervical cancer
  • Promiscuity: Having multiple sex- partners or having a partner who is promiscuous, increases the chances of developing cervical cancer
  • STD: A history of a sexually-transmitted disease makes a woman susceptible to develop cervical cancer
  • Reproductive History: Having seven or more number of full- term pregnancies predisposes a woman to develop cervical cancer
  • Oral Contraceptives: Long -term use of oral contraceptives makes a woman more prone to develop cervical cancer
  • Diethylstilbestrol (DES): Daughters of women who were given the drug DES during pregnancy to prevent miscarriage are at increased risk of developing cervical cancer. This drug was used until around 1970.
Risk Factors of Cervical Cancer


  1. Cervical Cancer - (https://www.cancer.gov/types/cervical)


Judy06 Monday, May 5, 2014

What is the symtoms of having cervical cancer?

emran Tuesday, September 6, 2011

can penis penetrate into the cervix kind regards

indus Thursday, March 11, 2010

What is the incidence of ca cx in India in 2010? kindly support with references.

heer28 Friday, January 29, 2010

Cervirax is considered to be effective before any contact with semen, but if somebody is using coitus interruptus method of contraception is it of any use or not????

michael0156 Friday, May 22, 2009

The vaccines Gardasil and Cervarix won't reduce cancer incidence or deaths. They will divert hundreds of billions of health care dollars to the coffers of pharmaceutical companies.

HPV infections, advertised to be the cause of cervical cancer, are slow and handled by our immune systems in over 90% according to the CDC/FDA/American Cancer Society

Women who don't clear HPV infection have immune problems caused by nutritional deficiencies, toxic exposure, toxin ingestion or genetics.

If an immune system can't clear an HPV infection no vaccine can help. Vaccines are passive targets and can't fix an immune system unable to identify or destroy HPV

HPV is controlled by intracellular immune response. Vaccine stimulate the humoral, antibody, response. Antibodies fight bloodborne infections and will not appreciably affect the rate of cervical HPV infections and CANNOT combat an active HPV infection

This will be proved in 20 years when vaccines are shown to have failed

guest Saturday, September 19, 2009

You're correct in stating that the vaccines will not combat those already infected. However, they have been proven to prevent infection of the HPV strains 6,11,16, and 18. Women don't have to have an "immune problem" caused by toxins, etc. to not clear the infection.I suggest you check your facts before posting such erroneous statements.

guest Saturday, September 26, 2009

I made no errors. Over 90% of us clear all HPV infection without drugs doctors or vaccines [FDA], a properly functioning immune system doing it's job. Chronic infection is caused by an immune system problem as I described

Gardasil has NOT been proven to prevent HPV infection, except by conflicted Merck research

A humoral response cannot prevent HPV infection of epithelial tissue, but cell mediated response can. Vaccines to provoke a cell mediated response are being developed. Until then Merck will be defrauding its customers with your help

Gardasil is the largest medical fraud in history perpetrated by Merck, maker of Vioxx and Pargluva, their two previous medical frauds.

Less than 1% of women chronically infected with HPV develop cervical cancer. This is not a cause and effect relationship. Read the Markovics' (oncologists) opinion that HPV and cervical cancer are together merely by coincidence, due to HPV being common and cervical cancer being rare.

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