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Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Last Updated on Jun 26, 2020
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Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the commonest of childhood cancers and it has, over the years, served as an ideal cancer research model.

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ALL is the commonest of childhood cancers and accounts for almost 25% of all cancers in children below the age of 15 years.

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia has, over the last decade or two, evolved and served as an ideal model for diagnosing and treating cancers in children as well as in adults.

Research and advances has resulted in development of the best combination of chemotherapy that has improved the cure rate, especially in children, to almost 70 to 80%.

What is ALL?

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia is a form of blood cancer that is characterized by the abnormal proliferation of the lymphoblasts in the bone marrow and the lymph. ALL has the ability to evolve over a short period of time.

'Acute' refers to the fact that:

  • The disease appears suddenly
  • Is fast- developing, and
  • May quickly spread to other vital organs.
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In a healthy individual, the T- cells and B- cells are the two different types of lymphocytes that produce antibodies to fight infections. These lymphocytes are distributed in the blood, lymph nodes, and spleen.

In patients with ALL, the lymphocytes remain immature and are referred to as lymphoblasts. These immature cells rapidly proliferate and outnumber other blood cells in the blood, bone marrow, and lymph tissue.

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Microscopic view of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

In the majority of ALL cases (85%), the B-cell lymphocytes are affected, while in the rest, the T-cells are altered.

ALL is fatal if left untreated and therefore requires immediate attention. Certain varieties of acute leukemia respond favorably to treatment and several affected individuals are successfully cured. However, there are certain types that do not have a pleasing prognosis.

What is new in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia?

1. Chemotherapy-associated Neurocognitive Side Effects Found in Leukemia Patients

Problems with attention, organization and related neurocognitive skills were found develop in the long run, if the young patients who had Leukemia were treated with methotrexate therapy in childhood, finds a new study.

References:

  1. Pui CH. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Clin North Am 1997; 4: 831-846.
  2. Pui CH, Evans WE. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 605-615.
  3. Gurney JG, Severson RK, Davis S, Robinson L. Incidence of cancer in children in the United States. Cancer 1995; 75: 2186-2195.
  4. Young J, Gloeckler RL, Silverberg E, Horm J, Miller R. Cancer incidence, survival and mortality for children younger than age 15 years. Cancer 1986; 58: 598-602.

Latest Publications and Research on Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

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    Dr. Reeja Tharu. 2021. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia - Incidence Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Prognosis. Medindia, viewed May 27, 2022, https://www.medindia.net/patients/patientinfo/acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia.htm.


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Comments

manoj.c.p

hi my daughter , rashmi 5 year old female was admitted in a hospital with the c/o fever,and anemia diagnosed as a ALL ,B CELL,started chemotherapy there at the time of admission her haemoglobin is 4,platelet 10,000,peripheral smear shows blast presnt CSF NEGATIVE BONE MARROW NOT DONE induction chemotherapy started prednisolone oral inj.vincristine i.v 4 doses inj, daunorubicin 3 doses inj.L. asparaginase 8 doses IT ,methotrexate 3 times BONE MARRO DONE 3? BLAST SHOWS phase b inj.cyclophosphamide iv 2 time inj,cytarabine s/c [ arac] 4 days * 4 doses tab .6 mp 60 days IT METHOTREXATE 3 times tab.biotraxate RE INDUCTION PHASE tab.dexamethasone orally inj.vincristine iv 4 doses inj. dnr 4 doses inj.L .asparanginase 4 dose inj.cyclophosphamide 1 dose inj.cytarabine 2 dose it.methotrexate 2 doses BONE MARROW DONE SHOWS 3% BLASTS AND 5%LYMPHS CSF NEGATIVE given tab.6pm for one month review 20/8/2012 please given valuable comments how is the condition and what to do next?

satzjeez

DO A HEART PATIENT GET CLL OR ALL OR AML OR CML

Toni95

Non of this has helped me with my research :/ my sister has leukemia and none of the stuff above is even close!!

jasperkumar

i had ALL WEN I WAS 10. I was treated for a year and i was good for 10 years but i was diagnosed for ALL wen I WAS 20 . I was treated and i am okay now. is this possible?

ParisDaniels

I think the best way to combat is to educate yourself about it. This will help you recognize the symptoms and therefore prevent the spread of cancer cells. I appreciate you sharing this to us.

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