Last Updated on Jun 20, 2011

  What is Diabetes?

  • Chronic health condition
  • Insufficient insulin produced /used
  • Affects sugar breakdown


  • Food eaten converted to glucose
  • Glucose produces energy
  • Insulin breaks down glucose 
  • Diabetics do not sufficiently produce or use insulin
  • Causes blood sugar build-up in blood 


 Type I diabetes
  • Mostly occurs in children/young adult 
  • Insulin production affected
 Type II diabetes
  • Mostly occur in adults
  • Body is partially/ fully insulin resistant
  • Blood sugar level increases
 Gestational diabetes 
  • Occurs in pregnant women 

  • Gestational Diabetes: Occurs in Pregnant Women

  • Causes problems in mother and

  • Increased thirst 
  • Excessive urination
  • Weight loss 

  • Symptoms of Diabetes: Weight Loss

  • Weakness
  • Vision changes
  • Dry skin / dehydration
  • Numbness in hands/ feet
  • Fasting blood glucose level> 126 mg/dL

  • Diagnosis of Diabetes: Fasting Blood Glucose Level

  • Random Blood Glucose> 200 mg/dL
 Complications of diabetes
  • Diabetic Retinopathy (eye)
  • Kidney Disease 

  • Complications of Diabetes: Kidney Disease

  • Heart Disease and Stroke 
  • Nerve Disease 
  • Impotence (sexual disorder)

 Type I diabetes
  • Daily Insulin injections 

  • Treatment of Diabetes: Insulin Injections

  • Insulin cannot be taken as a pill
 Type II diabetes
  • Healthy diet and exercise brings down glucose level.
  • Some people need diabetic medicine or insulin
 Medications to lower blood glucose level
Medications to Lower Blood Glucose Level

  • Sulfonylurea drugs & Meglitinedes: Produces insulin in the pancreas
  • Biguanides: decreases glucose in liver
  • - glucosidase inhibitors: Slows the absorption of starch
  • Consult a diabetologist or general physician

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@Gammie64, United States

what can I do to bring down high sugar in a hurry? My husband is acting very lethargic and his sugar is high.

@berhane, Eritrea

It is greatful article and it helps to many people not only to the health providers.
Berhane Ghebretinsae Lecturer in College of Nursing and Health technology