Vaccination with weaker strains of Salmonella may also protect against other infections, finds a new study. This finding could reshape the vaccination strategy in developing countries, where infectious diseases are more common and could potentially protect many lives. Typhoid fever is a bacterial bloodstream infection caused by Salmonella Typhi that is estimated to affect between 11-18 million people and cause between than 128,000-190,000 deaths annually worldwide. Published in the journal Science Advances, a new experimental study presents promising first data on the 'non-specific' immune response triggered by the live oral typhoid vaccine Ty21a. ‘In countries like India, infectious diseases occur and spread at a rapid rate causing ailments and claiming the lives of many. The finding offers new hope to prevent such infections and could save many lives.’ "Live-attenuated Salmonella vaccines are low-cost, well-tolerated and easily administered. These vaccines could potentially be included in global vaccination programs, not just for their impact on Salmonella, but also for their off-target, non-specific beneficial effects," says lead author Dr Shaun Pennington from the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. Previous evidence has suggested that some live-attenuated vaccines, such as those for measles and polio, can stimulate the human immune system to generate a wider protective response and lower all-cause mortality. In order to investigate whether Salmonella vaccines might offer similar protection, the researchers vaccinated a small group 16 healthy adults in the UK with the Ty21a vaccine and studied its impact on their immune system over the course of six months. They looked at immune responses targeting Salmonella as well as those targeting a range of other pathogens. The changes they observed to levels of infection-fighting white blood cells (monocytes) and immune system messengers (cytokines) suggest that Ty21a can strengthen the immune response against subsequent, unrelated infections. "The next step is to observe whether these responses also occur in children in low-income settings where their impact would be greatest. We'd like to conduct further clinical studies, where we will be able to assess the wider impact of our observations in conferring protection against other common infections, not just Salmonella," says Professor Melita Gordon from the University of Liverpool and Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, who was the study's principal investigator. The researchers add that the ability to manipulate live-attenuated Salmonella so that they express components of other pathogens could make their findings particularly exciting for future 'vector vaccine' design. "Salmonella vector vaccines could provide Salmonella-specific protection, vectored-pathogen protection and non-specific protection, making live-attenuated Salmonella a hugely powerful 'triple threat' tool for global vaccine development," adds Professor Gordon. The paper 'Nonspecific effects of oral vaccination with live-attenuated Salmonella Typhi strain Ty21a' is published in Science Advances. Source: Eurekalert << Plant-Based Diet Enhanced Insulin and Incretin Secretion in ... Exercise Reduces Colon Cancer Growth >> Recommended Reading Typhoid and Paratyphoid Enteric Fevers Typhoid and Paratyphoid Enteric Fevers are caused by bacteria called Salmonella typhi. Causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of Typhoid and Paratyphoid Enteric Fevers are discussed. READ MORE Fever Fever or Pyrexia is an elevation in normal body temperature. Causes of fever include infections, injury, cancers, inflammation, hormonal, metabolic and genetic diseases. READ MORE Diet during Typhoid Diet during typhoid should be given close attention, as it's an important part of the treatment. Proper care should be taken while cooking and choosing foods. READ MORE Top 10 Vaccine Myths Debunked Childhood vaccination has saved many lives, yet lots more has to be done to increase awareness and eliminate myths regarding vaccines. READ MORE Salmonellosis Poor hygienic practices during cooking or handling of food products can cause this distressing infection of the intestines leading to diarrhea, cramps and fever. READ MORE Traveling with Children Abroad? - Parents, Stay Alert! Traveling with children is always challenging as it involves careful planning. Here are some precautions that need to be taken when traveling abroad with kids. READ MORE Most Popular on Medindia Nutam (400mg) (Piracetam) Indian Medical Journals Drug - Food Interactions More News on: Typhoid and Paratyphoid Enteric FeversSalmonellosisFeverTop 10 Vaccine Myths DebunkedTraveling with Children Abroad? - Parents, Stay Alert!