Cholesterol are of two types namely high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL). HDL or good cholesterol is often considered an independent predictor of heart disease because of its protective effects.
But a new study shows for the first time that HDL's protection depends on the levels of two other blood fats or lipids associated with heart disease. If these fats are not within normal ranges, even a high HDL may not be protective.
The new research analyzes nearly 25 years of data from the Framingham Heart Study's Offspring Cohort. It focuses on the roles HDL, LDL (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and triglycerides (TG) play in increasing or decreasing the risk of heart disease. The study, published online in Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, followed 3,590 men and women without known cardiovascular disease between 1987 and 2011.
- Can the level of HDL by itself determine the risk of a person developing heart disease? What happens to the risk if LDL and TG are abnormal?
- The researchers looked at study participants with both low and high HDL levels, and those who also had normal and high levels of LDL and TG
- HDL was not uniformly predictive of cardiovascular risk
- TG and LDL modified the incidence of CVD in both low- and high-level HDL
- Compared with isolated low HDL, the CVD risk was 30-60 percent higher in the presence of high levels of LDL, TG or both
- High HDL was not associated with reduced CVD risk if TG and LDL were above 100 mg/dL