Helicopter parenting or over-involvement in the lives of children may result in lower self-worth and higher risk behavior as they turn older, says a study.
Extra affection and support cannot neutralize the consequences of parental control while lack of warmth makes the negative effects of helicopter parenting worse.
The researchers at the Brigham Young University studied the effects of pushy or 'helicopter parenting' in 438 students.
Recent findings show that making important decisions for their children, solving their problems, and intervening in their conflicts have positive as well as negative effects.
"From our past work, we thought there might be something positive about helicopter parenting under certain conditions, but we're just not finding it," said Professor Larry Nelson, of Brigham Young University.
Overall, stepping in and doing for a child what the child developmentally should be doing for him or herself is negative.
Professor Nelson said, "With the contribution of this study, it is becoming increasingly clear that helicopter parenting is not inherently warm. It also represents another form of control (besides behavioral and psychological control) that is linked to maladjustment in emerging adulthood."
But parents shouldn't overcompensate by removing themselves completely from their children's lives, as they need parental support. "Lack of control does not mean lack of involvement, warmth and support," he added.