- Faulty T-cells lead to inflammation that results in autoimmune disorder.
- Replacing the gut microbiota and introduction of
inosine found to cure autoimmune disorder IPEX syndrome.
- Gut microbes play a key role in maintaining health and could
also aid in treating autoimmune disorder.
share a very
delicate relationship with our body. It is common knowledge that these
microorganisms aid in digestion and also help in crowding the gut with no space for the
colonization of harmful microbes. Scientists have now found that gut
microbes could play a key role in the management of autoimmune disorders.
An autoimmune disorder
called the IPEX
syndrome is a rare condition that affects children as young as 6 months.
Scientists from The University of Texas Health Centre have found that certain
defects in the T-cells in the body lead to inflammation and result in an
autoimmune disease as they alter the bacteria living in the gut. The study
published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine
shows that replacing the bacteria or including an important
metabolite called inosine could be a possible cure for IPEX syndrome.
‘Gut microbes could play a key role in the management of autoimmune disorders.’
The regulatory T-cells
that are present in the body prevent the body's own T-cells
from attacking the tissues in the body. However, when these regulatory T-cells
become faulty, then it leads to autoimmune disease like the IPEX syndrome.
Gut Microbiome and Gastrointestinal Disorder
The gut microbiome can
also result in an autoimmune disorder, according to the study by Yuying Liu and
J. Marc Rhoads from The University of Texas Health Science Center. Disruptions
in the Foxp3 transcription factor were found to disrupt the regulation of the T-cells
which, lead to the development of IPEX syndrome.
Mice that carried a
mutant version of the Foxp3 gene were found to
- Show changes in the gut microbiome
- At the same time there was development of autoimmune
- The mice had lower levels of lactobacilli
- When the mice were fed with Lactobacilli reuteri, the level of inflammation was lowered
Bacteria that live in
the gut of humans secrete certain metabolites. The metabolite inosine was low
in people with faulty Foxp3 factor, the level of inosine was found to be normal when Lactobacilli reuteri
was introduced into
the gut. Inosine binds to adenosine A2A receptors that prevent the synthesis of Th1 and Th2
cells. These inflammatory T-cell types were found to be elevated in
mice that were deficient in Foxp3 but on introduction of
Lactobacilli or inosine, the inflammation was reduced while the lifespan of the
Yuying Liu added that
"Our findings suggest that probiotic L.
, inosine, or other A2A receptor agonists could be used
therapeutically to control T cell-mediated autoimmunity."
polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome is a group of autoimmune disordersthat affect many parts of the
body. Males are more often affected than females but it is fatal during early
In the IPEX syndrome,
the cells in the intestine are damaged resulting in a condition called
enteropathy. This can lead to severe diarrhea which prevents the child from
gaining weight, leading to weakness. It can also lead to an inflammation of the
skin called dermatitis, with red patches all over the body. An autoimmune
condition of the pancreas results in the development of type 1 diabetes.
Found to Influence Autoimmune Disease
via Gut Microbes
earlier have shown that diet can influence the type of gut microbe present in
the body, which can improve autoimmune condition. When the body's defense
fights against a foreign invasion, there is an increase in heat, inflammation
along with redness in the area. However, in an autoimmune condition, the body's
defense mechanism fights against its own tissues, which result in an
inflammatory reaction that lasts for a prolonged period of time. This extended
exposure to inflammation can damage the tissue.
The study by Dr.
Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti from St. Jude's hospital showed that the diet
consumed influences the type of bacteria that grow in our gut, which in turn
influence autoimmune disorder. Mice that had a condition that was similar to
chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis were fed with a normal diet, they
developed enlarged lymph nodes, bone erosion and hind paw inflammation within a
period of 100 days.
When the mutant mice
were fed with a diet that was rich in
cholesterol, they were protected from the effects of the autoimmune condition.
This study shows that gut microbes can play a beneficial role in autoimmune
Bacteria Could Cause Rheumatoid Arthritis
autoimmune disease that results in pain in the joints and inflammation. Over a
period of time, it could lead to damage to the lungs and to the kidney. This
autoimmune condition can occur at any stage with the reason unknown. In a
previous study, it was found that people who were detected with rheumatoid
arthritis showed that Prevotella copri
was found in 75% of the
These studies show that
the type of microbes that are present in our gut could either aid us in
lowering the effect of an autoimmune condition or could trigger the condition.
The colonization of harmful bacteria may be avoided by enriching the gut with
Yogurt and probiotic products are rich in 'good bacteria
', the ones that will prevent unnecessary
immune reaction that form the basis of autoimmunity.References:
- Immune Dysregulation, Polyendocrinopathy, Enteropathy, x-Linked Syndrome - (https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/immune-dysregulation-polyendocrinopathy-enteropathy-x-linked-syndrome)
- Diet Affects Autoinflammatory Disease Via Gut Microbes - (https://www.nih.gov/news-events/nih-research-matters/diet-affects-autoinflammatory-disease-gut-microbes)