Until now the infection has been well documented in cattle
and dogs in Australia, however Associate Professor Sanjaya Senanayake from Canberra
Hospital and coauthors have now described the first human case in Australia,
thought to be locally acquired.
It is believed the 56-year-old man from the south coast of NSW caught babesiosis when he was bitten by a tick. He
was first admitted to hospital in November 2010 following a motor vehicle accident,
and then spent several months in hospital before dying in April 2011, while on
specific anti-babesiosis therapy.
Human babesiosis is fatal in 5%-10% of cases, according to
the authors. The first case of human babesiosis was reported in Croatia in 1957 and more recent cases have been
documented in Asia, Africa and South America,
The authors said that as the infection has never been
detected in Australia
before, its discovery in this patient, who had no significant history of
travel, raised "intriguing questions about its natural hosts and epidemiology
on this continent".
Although the animal host is yet to be identified in Australia, the proximity of ticks, other
wildlife and human populations along Australia's eastern seaboard means
that further cases may be encountered.
They said doctors should be aware of the signs and symptoms
and how to diagnose it. They also said that as transfusion-related babesiosis
is well recognized in other countries, "this case may have future implications
for the screening of blood products in Australia".
The Medical Journal of Australia is a publication of
the Australian Medical Association.