Hypospadias is a congenital defect in which the opening of the urethra is located on the under surface of penis, instead of at the end. In more severe forms of hypospadias the opening of the urethra is in the middle or at the base of the penis. Rarely, this opening is located in or behind the scrotum.
Due to this the hypospadiac boys have to sit down and pass urine. If they stand and pass urine like normal boys, the urine is deviated downwards towards their feet.
As an adult, sexual activities become difficult due to the abnormal curvature of the penis during erection. They have much lower chance to have children, as they cannot deposit the sperm normally. The sperm leaks out through the opening located underneath.
The exact cause of hypospadias is unknown. It can be easily diagnosed at birth during routine physical examination.
Surgery usually restores the normal appearance of the child's penis. When the problem is corrected by 1-3 years of age with a good outcome, there should be no problem in future for fertility.