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Type 2 Diabetes - Slideshow

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What is diabetes?

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What is diabetes?, Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes is a chronic condition that impairs the body's natural ability to convert sugar into energy.


The disease can affect people of all age groups and is increasingly affecting young adults and children.
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Dynamics

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Dynamics, Type 2 Diabetes
Normally after a meal, food is broken down into glucose, a sugar, which is carried by the blood to all the cells where the pancreatic hormone, insulin, transforms it into energy.


In people with type 2 diabetes, insulin is not adequately used in the cells of the muscles, liver, and fat tissues.This leads to an accumulation of sugar in the blood.
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Symptoms

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Symptoms, Type 2 Diabetes
The early symptoms of diabetes are very subtle, if present.


About a third of the people who have diabetes are hardly aware that they have the disease.
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Warning Signs

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Warning Signs, Type 2 Diabetes
» Increased thirst / Dry mouth


» Increased appetite


» Unusual weight gain / loss


» Fatigue


» Headaches / Blurred vision


» Frequent urination


» Frequent or slow-healing infections


» Itchy skin in the groin area

Non - Modifiable Risk Factors

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Non - Modifiable Risk Factors, Type 2 Diabetes
» Age - 45 years and above


» Ethnicity- Black American, Hispanic, Native American or Asian


» Genetics - Family history of diabetes

Modifiable Risk Factors

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Modifiable Risk Factors, Type 2 Diabetes
» Sedentary lifestyle


» Body Mass Index (BMI) > 25


» Good cholesterol (HDL) < 35mg/dl


» Triglycerides > 250mg/dl


» High BP in adults > 140/90

Diagnosis

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Diagnosis, Type 2 Diabetes
After the person has fasted for eight hours a simple blood test is done to detect 'fasting plasma glucose'. This is the best diagnostic test for diabetes.


In a person without diabetes, the fasting blood glucose is between 70 and 100 mg/dL


If two tests done separately show values greater than normal, then diabetes is confirmed.

Complications

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Complications, Type 2 Diabetes
When a person has diabetes there is an accumulation of sugar in the blood which can lead to severe complications.


» Eye - retinopathy and blindness


» Nerves - weakness


» Feet - nerve damage/foot sore/gangrene


» Heart Attack / stroke


» Kidney disease / failure

Management

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Management, Type 2 Diabetes
» Controlled and monitored by low-carbohydrate diet intake


» Regular exercises for 30 minutes daily


» Medications to control blood sugar


» Insulin administration, in some cases

Prevention

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Prevention, Type 2 Diabetes
It may be reassuring to know that type 2 diabetes is preventable by making a few lifestyle changes


» Go for screening if you belong to the increased - risk group


» Eat a balanced and healthy diet


» Exercise regularly


» Avoid being sedentary and always maintain optimal weight



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