Risks And Complications
The overall risk for complications from cardiac catheterization is about 1 in 1000. Contrast dyes cause adverse effects in almost 1 out of 10 patients. The common side effect is nausea or vomiting. Some of the complications due to dye allergy are -
- Fast heartbeat
- Slow heartbeat
- Kidney failure
Few other complications are -
- Bleeding at the insertion site
- Damage to the blood vessels used for catheter entry
- Ventricular arrhythmias
- Pneumothorax [air collection between the chest wall and the lungs]
- Cardiac tamponade [fluid collection around the heart]
- Heart attack
- Stroke [0.1%]
- Air embolism
- Death [0.1- 0.2%]
In rare cases, patients undergoing angiogram will be shifted to the operation room for an emergency bypass surgery.
- Effect of Transradial Access on Quality of Life and Cost of Cardiac Catheterization: A randomized Comparison. Christopher J. Cooper, MD, Reda A. El-Shiekh, MD, David J. Cohen, MD, MSc, Linda Blaesing, RN, Mark W. Burket, MD, Asish Basu, MD, etal. Am Heart J 138(3):430-436, 1999.
- The effect of early education on patient anxiety while waiting for elective cardiac catheterization. Harkness K, Morrow L, Smith K, Kiczula M, Arthur HM. European journal of cardiovascular nursing: journal of the Working Group on Cardiovascular Nursing of the European Society of Cardiology 2003 July.
- Indications for and objectives of cardiac catheterization in aortic valve disease. A D Johnson. West J Med. 1977 June; 126(6): 471–473. - (http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1237633)
- Information About Cardiac catheterization - (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003419.htm)
- Cardiac Catheterization and Coronary Angiogram - (http://www.cpmc.org/services/cardiac/card-cath.html)
- http://www.clevelandclinic.org/heartcenter/pub/guide/webchat/ellis052507.htm - (Interventional Procedures - Questions and Answers about Stents, Angioplasty and New Approaches to Treat Heart Disease — May 25, 2007)
- Cardiac Catheterization FAQs - (http://www.hfmhealth.org/card-cath-faq.htm)