The study led by Japan's health ministry monitored some 54,000 women aged 40 to 69 over about 15 years, during which time 117 women developed cancer in the womb, according to the medical team.
The researchers at Japan's National Cancer Center divided the women into four groups by the amount of coffee they drank.
They found the group of women who drank more than three cups of coffee every day were more than 60 percent less likely to develop uterine cancer than those who had coffee fewer than two times a week, the study said.
"Coffee may have effects in lowering insulin levels, possibly curbing the risks of developing womb cancer," the study said.
The medical team also studied the effects of drinking green tea, but did not find any link to uterine cancer.
According to the US Centers for Disease Control, uterine cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women.