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Specific Gene Linked to Adult Growth of Brain Cells, Learning and Memory

by Bidita Debnath on June 11, 2014 at 11:05 PM
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 Specific Gene Linked to Adult Growth of Brain Cells, Learning and Memory

Memory and learning are regulated by a region of the brain known as the hippocampus.

New research from City of Hope has found that stimulating a specific gene could prompt growth - in adults - of new neurons in this critical region, leading to faster learning and better memories.

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Understanding the link between this gene and the growth of new neurons - or neurogenesis - is an important step in developing therapies to address impaired learning and memory associated with neurodegenerative diseases and aging. The new research was published June 9 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The study, which used an animal model, found that over-expressing the gene - a nuclear receptor called TLX - resulted in smart, faster learners that retained information better and longer.
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"Memory loss is a major health problem, both in diseases like Alzheimer's, but also just associated with aging," said Yanhong Shi, Ph.D., lead author of the study and a neurosciences professor at City of Hope. "In our study, we manipulated the expression of this receptor by introducing an additional copy of the gene - which obviously we cannot do outside the laboratory setting. The next step is to find the drug that can target this same gene."

The discovery creates a new potential strategy for improving cognitive performance in elderly patients and those who have a neurological disease or brain injury.

The bulk of the brain's development happens before birth, and there are periods -largely in childhood and young adulthood - when the brain experiences bursts of new growth. In the past couple of decades, however, scientists have found evidence of neurogenesis in later adulthood - occurring mostly in the hippocampus, the region of the brain associated with learning and memory.

The new study is the first to firmly link the TLX gene to a potential for enhancing learning and memory.

Researchers found that over-expression of the gene was actually associated with a physically larger brain, as well as the ability to learn a task quickly. Furthermore, over-expression of the gene was linked with the ability to remember, over a longer period of time, what had been learned.

Source: Eurekalert
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