Masculinization of the male fetus not only depends on the testes, but also on other tissues, especially the placenta, according to a new study published in the open-access journal PLOS Biology from Paul Fowler of the University of Aberdeen, Michelle Bellingham of the University of Glasgow, and colleagues in the UK, France and Sweden.
The results reveal a previously unknown pathway of masculinization of the external genitals, and may explain why placental dysfunction is associated with disorders of male genital development. During development of the male fetus, the testes release testosterone, a steroid hormone which is converted to 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by the genital tubercle, helping to ensure that this primordial structure develops into a penis, rather than into the female clitoris. However, the details of this backdoor pathway, including the source of the DHT precursor, have been unclear.
To learn more about this pathway, the authors used mass-spectrometry to measure levels of different steroids in fetal plasma and tissue during the second trimester, when the most critical steps in penis development occur. They also analyzed gene expression levels in various tissues of key enzymes known to be involved in hormone synthesis.
Since androsterone can be made from progesterone, the authors suggest that placental progesterone or related compounds are the likely source of androsterone in the backdoor pathway. While it remains unclear why a sex difference in fetal androsterone levels exists, the authors found high expression in the male genital tubercle of enzymes required to convert androsterone to DHT. The male genital tubercle appears, therefore to be able to convert both testosterone and androsterone into DHT.
"They also suggest an explanation for why disorders of placental insufficiency can lead to hypospadias and other abnormalities of growth of the male external genitalia."