About My Health Careers Internship MedBlogs Contact us
Medindia LOGIN REGISTER
Advertisement

New Hope for Patients With Autoimmune Disease

by Colleen Fleiss on March 6, 2019 at 2:09 AM
Font : A-A+

New Hope for Patients With Autoimmune Disease

Scientists have developed a new and safe treatment for two autoimmune diseases namely diabetes and multiple sclerosis.

Autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis, arise when the body's immune cells attack itself. Current treatments eliminate these misfunctioning immune cells, but also destroy normal, protective immune cells, leaving patients susceptible to immune deficiency and opportunistic infections. Researchers at University of Utah Health have developed a new approach that targets the misfunctioning immune cells while leaving normal immune cells in place. The results of their study are available online in the March issue of Nature Biomedical Engineering.

Advertisement


"We are really taking treatment for autoimmune disease in a new direction," begins Mingnan Chen, Ph.D., assistant professor in Pharmaceutical Chemistry at U of U Health. "This is the first time anyone has looked at the programmed cell death protein (PD-1) cells as a target to develop therapeutics for autoimmune disease."

The team tested the treatment in a mouse model that mimics type 1 diabetes. They found the treatment delayed the onset of diabetes in mice (29 weeks old compared to 19 weeks old for control-treated mice).
Advertisement

In addition, the treatment was also applied to a mouse multiple sclerosis model (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis). Not only did the treatment halt the progression of paralysis in the six mice in this model, these mice regained the ability to walk. The team monitored the mice for 25 days after treatment and found the paralysis did not return.

In a normal functioning immune system, the PD-1-expressing cells, including immune cells (B and T lymphocytes), contain a mechanism that acts like a checkpoint that prevents the cycle from attacking itself. In people with autoimmune disease, these cells, somehow, escape the checkpoint and the immune system remains in a state of alert, attacking body cells.

"We wanted to target PD-1-expressing cells," said Peng Zhao, Ph.D., a former graduate student in Chen's lab and first author on the paper. "Using this method, we may avoid long-term immune deficiency caused by common treatments for autoimmune disease."

Chen and his team engineered a protein molecule to deplete the misfunctioning PD-1-expressing cells from the body. The engineered molecule consists of three parts: an anti-PD-1 antibody fragment (?PD-1), a toxin (Pseudomonas exotoxin) and a binder (albumin-binding domain). The antibody fragment acts like a key that attaches and gaining access into the PD-1-expressing cells. The protein toxin kills the cell. The binder allows the engineered molecule to circulate in the body for a longer time.

Chen and his team challenged the immune system of the mice in the study to determine whether the treatment had a negative effect on the healthy immune system. They found the mice in each model mounted a normal immune response.

The experimental therapeutics engineered by Chen and his team thus far is specific to mice. They are currently developing therapeutics applicable to humans.

"To make similar therapeutics for people, we would need to find the anti-human PD-1 antibody, like the anti-mouse PD-1 antibody," Chen said. "If we can generate the human version of therapeutics, I think we could make a huge impact in treating autoimmune disease."

Source: Eurekalert
Advertisement

Advertisement
News A-Z
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Advertisement
News Category
What's New on Medindia
Top 7 Benefits of Good Oral Hygiene
Healthy and Safer Thanksgiving 2021
Long-Term Glycemic Control - A Better Measure of COVID-19 Severity
View all

Medindia Newsletters Subscribe to our Free Newsletters!
Terms & Conditions and Privacy Policy.

More News on:
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Chemotherapy Chemotherapy Drugs Multiple Sclerosis Myasthenia Gravis Multiple Sclerosis Treatment and Modify Vitiligo Autoimmune Disorders Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA) Microscopic Polyangiitis 

Recommended Reading
Autoimmune Disorders
Autoimmune disorders occur when the immune system fails to recognize the body as 'self' and attacks ...
Rasmussen's Encephalitis Recently Proved to be An Autoimmune Disease
Rasmussen's encephalitis has recently been proved to be an autoimmune disorder by researchers who .....
Quiz on Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that affects nerves and can leave the affected patient ....
Diabetes Risk Assessment Calculator
Almost one-third of the people are unaware of the risk factors of diabetes. Find out if you run the ...
Chemotherapy
‘Chemo’ means medicine or ‘drug’; ‘therapy’ means ‘treatment’. Chemotherapy refers to the use of cy...
Chemotherapy Drugs
Chemotherapy drugs perform like ‘magic bullets’ to destroy cancer cells in the body....
Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA)
Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA) is a type of vasculitis that usually affects the upper airway...
Microscopic Polyangiitis
Microscopic polyangitis, infection of small blood vessels, presents with general symptoms of fever, ...
Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis can be a severely disabling autoimmune disease that affects the myelin or insulat...
Multiple Sclerosis Treatment and Modify
Multiple sclerosis is treated with drugs that modify the course of the disease, suppress immunity an...
Myasthenia Gravis
Myasthenia gravis is the commonest disorder of neuromuscular transmission. Autoimmune myasthenia gra...
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that affects multiple organs like the jo...
Vitiligo
Vitiligo is a skin disease characterized by patches of unpigmented skin. Vitiligo is usually slowly ...

Disclaimer - All information and content on this site are for information and educational purposes only. The information should not be used for either diagnosis or treatment or both for any health related problem or disease. Always seek the advice of a qualified physician for medical diagnosis and treatment. Full Disclaimer

© All Rights Reserved 1997 - 2021

This site uses cookies to deliver our services. By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie Policy, Privacy Policy, and our Terms of Use