About My Health Careers Internship MedBlogs Contact us
Medindia LOGIN REGISTER
Advertisement

New Bladder Cancer Model Could Pave the Way for Better Treatments

by Colleen Fleiss on May 22, 2018 at 1:56 AM
Font : A-A+

New Bladder Cancer Model Could Pave the Way for Better Treatments

A new tool developed by University of North Carolina Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center scientists helps uncover why only a fraction of bladder cancer patients respond to new immune-based treatments. The findings of the study are published in journal Cancer Research led by UNC Lineberger's William Y. Kim, MD, Benjamin G. Vincent, MD, and colleagues.

Five checkpoint inhibitors have been approved for metastatic, or locally advanced, bladder cancer since May 2016, giving patients additional options after standard therapy failed. But studies have shown that less than a quarter of patients will respond to these drugs. "Not all bladder cancers are the same, and until now, we didn't have the tools to understand biology or look at the therapeutic efficacy of drugs in luminal preclinical models," said Kim, who is an associate professor in the UNC School of Medicine Departments of Genetics, Pharmacology, and Urology. "The biggest impact is that the scientific community now has a mouse model that can be used to understand the biology of these bladder tumors better, and to evaluate promising therapies."

Advertisement


The researchers used their newly created model and an existing model for basal-like bladder cancer, the other subtype of bladder cancer, to examine features that may determine the effectiveness of checkpoint inhibitors. They studied the immune microenvironment - the immune cells in and around the tumor -- for each subtype. They determined there was lower levels of immune cells in and around luminal tumors, and that this model did not respond as well to PD-1 inhibitors. They also analyzed the level of neo-antigens present on the two different bladder cancer subtypes. Neoantigens are proteins that sprout on the surface of cancer tumors as a result of DNA mutations or other alternations in cancer cells. Scientists are interested in using neoantigens to predict response to immunotherapy treatments, or as drug targets. "We think neoantigens are at least a large reason for why there is an anti-tumor immune response - meaning the body uses the neo-antigens to recognize the tumor as foreign," Kim said. "There's a lot of interest in trying to leverage neo-antigens therapeutically, and so we wanted to see if our model expressed them."

Vincent's lab used genetic sequencing to predict which abnormal proteins would appear on the surface of the cancer models, and then studied the extent to which the abnormal markers triggered the immune system. They found the luminal subtype had a lower number of markers that were highly immunogenic, or had the ability to trigger the immune system. "Understanding how and why tumors are differentially immunogenic is critical for understanding how to best use therapies that target the immune system in the clinic," Vincent said. Kim said a future line of research will investigate how neo-antigens help to elicit an immune response, and whether they can leverage their findings to augment the activity of checkpoint inhibitors.
Advertisement

"The models will allow us to mechanistically understand why certain neo-antigens will cooperate with checkpoint inhibitors, and why others don't," Kim said. Overall, he said the work could help to clarify the best approach for treating patients after their disease has progressed on the standard of care. It also provides a laboratory tool that accounts for bladder cancer being a disease with distinct subtypes. "We are refining our understanding of cancers, and to make a parallel in another disease, I'd say to call breast cancer 'breast cancer' nowadays is not appropriate," Kim said "We call it HER2-positive breast cancer, or triple negative breast cancer, because these types are treated differently, and the biology underlying them is different. For bladder cancer, we now understand the same is true - that there are multiple subtypes of disease. We should no longer refer to bladder cancer as a single disease"

Source: Eurekalert
Advertisement

Advertisement
News A-Z
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
News Category
What's New on Medindia
Ten Fruits for Diabetics
Natural Supplements Help Reverse Hair Loss during Menopause
Ways to Manage Stress during COVID-19 Pandemic
View all

Medindia Newsletters Subscribe to our Free Newsletters!
Terms & Conditions and Privacy Policy.

More News on:
Cancer and Homeopathy Vesico-Ureteric Reflux Causing UTI in Children Enuresis/Bedwetting Cancer Facts Cancer Tattoos A Body Art Interstitial Cystitis Bladder Cancer Common Lifestyle Habits that Cause Diseases Health Benefits of Dandelion Plant 

Recommended Reading
Bladder Cancer
Bladder cancer occurs due to abnormal cell growth in the urinary bladder. The most common kind ......
Test Your Knowledge on Kidney Cancer
Kidney cancer also called renal cancer is one of the top 10 most common cancers in both men and ......
Urine Test Helps Detect Bladder Cancer Recurrence
The presence of Telomerase reverse transcriptase in the urine helps predict recurrence of bladder .....
Malaria Parasite Protein: New Hope for Cisplatin-resistant Invasive Bladder Cancer
A protein derived from malarial parasite has been used to deliver cytotoxic compounds to ......
Common Lifestyle Habits that Cause Diseases
Cigarette smoking, unhealthy diets, overuse of alcohol, and physical inactivity are some of the most...
Enuresis/Bedwetting
Bedwetting (nocturnal enuresis) is involuntary voiding of urine during sleep at least three times a ...
Health Benefits of Dandelion Plant
What is dandelion? Dandelion greens are nutrition powerhouses with a wide range of health benefits. ...
Interstitial Cystitis
Interstitial cystistis is an umbrella term where a pathology cannot be defined but the patient suf...
Tattoos A Body Art
Tattoos are a rage among college students who sport it for the ‘cool dude’ or ‘cool babe’ look...
Vesico-Ureteric Reflux Causing UTI in Children
Bacterial infection of urinary bladder can cause pain and burning sensation while passing urine. Abn...

Disclaimer - All information and content on this site are for information and educational purposes only. The information should not be used for either diagnosis or treatment or both for any health related problem or disease. Always seek the advice of a qualified physician for medical diagnosis and treatment. Full Disclaimer

© All Rights Reserved 1997 - 2021

This site uses cookies to deliver our services. By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie Policy, Privacy Policy, and our Terms of Use