Neuropeptide Y exhibits neuroprotective effects. But the neuroprotective effects that are mediated by the pathways including regulating the immunological activity of reactive microglia and reducing cytokines remains unclear. Prof. Wenqing Zhao, Graduate School, Heibei Medical University, China and his team confirmed that neuropeptide Y prevented excessive production of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α by inhibiting microglial reactivity, reduced N-methyl-D-aspartate current in rat cortical neurons, preventing excitotoxicity, and thereby protecting neurons. Related results were published in Neural Regeneration Research (Vol. 9, No. 9, 2014).