For the first time researchers have succeeded in altering HIV virus particles so that they can simultaneously, as it were, 'cut and paste' in our genome via biological processes. Developed at the Department of Biomedicine at Aarhus University, the technology makes it possible to repair genomes in a new way. It also offers good perspectives for individual treatment of both hereditary diseases and certain viral infections: "Now we can simultaneously cut out the part of the genome that is broken in sick cells, and patch the gap that arises in the genetic information which we have removed from the genome."
"The new aspect here is that we can bring the scissors and the patch together in the HIV particles in a fashion that no one else has done before," says associate professor in genetics Jacob Giehm Mikkelsen from Aarhus University. 'Hit-and-run' technique leaves no traces At the same time, the team of researchers from Aarhus have developed a technique that increases the safety of the cutting process, the so-called "gene editing": "In the past, the gene for the scissors has been transferred to the cells, which is dangerous because the cell keeps on producing scissors which can start cutting uncontrollably.
But because we make the scissors in the form of a protein, they only cut for a few hours, after which they are broken down. And we ensure that the virus particle also brings along a small piece of genetic material to patch the hole," says Jacob Giehm Mikkelsen. "We call this a 'hit-and-run' technique because the process is fast and leaves no traces". Viruses become nanoparticles The researchers have benefited from many years of intense research into HIV as this has e.g. shown that HIV particles can be converted into transporters of genetic information. But when they also become transporters of proteins that are not normally found in the cells, as is the case now, the particles are altered.