- Dietary manganese
if exceeds the normal level can cause infection due to Staphylococcus in
- Excess manganese
inactivates a key line of defense of the neutrophils against the bacteria.
- Another line of
defense by the protein calprotectin was ineffective in response to
elevated levels of manganese.
that is included in the diet from leafy green vegetables, fruits and nuts can
promote infection of the heart by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus or
Staph.This occurs only when
manganese gets accumulated.
findings, reported in the journal Cell Host & Microbe
, add to the
evidence that infection can be influenced by the diet. The discovery also
suggests, that people who
have excess levels of tissue manganese, including those who consume dietary
supplements with high concentrations of the metal, may be at increased risk for
staph infection of the heart.
‘People who have excess levels of tissue manganese, due to intake of dietary supplements with high concentrations of the metal, may be at increased risk for staph infection of the heart.’
human body does a wonderful job of regulating nutrient levels, and a
traditional Western diet has plenty of minerals in it. The idea of super-dosing
nutrients needs to be given careful consideration," said Eric Skaar,
Ph.D., MPH, Ernest W. Goodpasture Professor of Pathology and senior author of
the current study.
Manganese and Bacterial Infection
impact of staph infection due to
dietary manganese was studied by Skaar and his colleagues using a mouse model.
the mice that consumed a diet which has manganese,that was three times more than the required levels died after infection with
staph. Animals on the high manganese diet were
particularly susceptible to staph infection of the heart.
know very little about how manganese is moved around and regulated. It's a
mystery why high manganese affects staph infection of a single organ,"
manganese in the blood inactivates a key line of defense against pathogens. The
immune system's response to reactive oxygen was shut down with the excess
response to staph, "neutrophils pour into the site of infection and blast
the bacteria with reactive oxygen species," Skaar explained. The excess
manganese was found to counteract and stop this reaction.
striking that a single dietary change can inactivate one of the most powerful
branches of innate immune defense and lead to fatal infection," Skaar
Manganese Shuns Immunity
line of defense by the protein calprotectin was ineffective. Usually,
calprotectin acts as a sponge to mop up manganese and other metals and keeps
these nutrients away from pathogens.
reasons unknown, calprotectin is completely ineffective in the high manganese
hearts", Skaar said.
is a component of several enzymes and it is vital to the development and
activity of several others. MnSOD (manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase) is
one of the most important enzymes related to manganese intake.
an important role in the management of oxidative stress as it is an antioxidant that transforms toxic radicals
into hydrogen peroxide and water.
required for the proper
functioning of the brain, and so it is used in the treatment of nervous
disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia.
Manganese helps to regulate insulin from the pancreas, and so a diet that does not include adequate manganese
can result in decreased insulin production.
supplements are also used to prevent and treat certain types of anemia, and various bone problems.
manganese intake may help to alleviate the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome.
of Staphyloccus Infection
endocarditis is the infection of the inner lining of the heart chamber and
heart valves. Staph is the leading cause of the infection and the second common
cause of blood stream infection.
populations of people with chronic liver disease and patients on long-term
intravenous diets have both increased risk for staph infections, particularly
endocarditis, and higher than normal levels of tissue manganese, Skaar noted.
Sources of Manganese
dietary supplements are more concentrated sources of manganese, it is ideal to
know the foods sources to keep a watch on the intake of manganese through diet.
Black tea, cloves, cardamom, spinach,
mussels, ginger are good sources of manganese and fruits also contain some amount
study does not highlight the need to reduce the intake of manganese through
diet. It is still not understood as to how manganese is transported and
regulated in vertebrates, and why the heart
is particularly susceptible to fatal staph infections. Further research is
being carried out on the impact of other nutrient minerals and vitamins on
- Eric P. Skaar et al., Dietary Manganese Promotes Staphylococcal Infection of the Heart, Cell Host & Microbe (2017), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2017.08.009.