Ischemia-reperfusion injury is one of the adverse effects which occurs as a result of blood flow restriction during the reperfusion stage of kidney transplant surgery.
In animal models of transplantation, females show increased tolerance to ischemia compared to males, but it is unclear whether sex disparities extend to human kidney transplantations. The research led by Matthew Levine at the University of Pennsylvania linked female resilience to renal ischemia with protective effects of estrogen.
Female mice displayed increased survival rates and lower levels of kidney injury compared to males following induced renal ischemia. The effects were attenuated in neutered females, but supplemental estrogen prior to the ischemic episode restored protection.