Middle-class men with nontraditional caregiving roles face more disrespect at work compared to men who come from families that follow traditional gender roles, a new study reveals.
The study found that women without children and mothers with non-traditional caregiving arrangements are treated worst of all.
"Their hours are no different than other employees', but their co-workers appear to be picking up on their non-traditional caregiving roles and are treating them disrespectfully," Prof. Jennifer Berdahl of the University of Toronto's Rotman School of Management, who co-authored the study with Sue Moon from the Long Island University Post, said.
Results were based on two separate field studies, each using mail-in surveys.
The first was targeted at unionized workers in female-dominated occupations and the other was targeted at public service workers in a male-dominated workforce.
Overall, the studies found consequences for any employee who violated traditional gender roles when it came to having a family.
The least harassed in the office - Fathers and mothers who followed more traditional gender norms; that is, men who did less caregiving and domestic tasks at home and women who did more.
The results suggest that how well a worker performs their gender role in the home has more bearing on how they are treated at work than how well that worker performs their job.
As a result, men and women are likely to feel pressure at work to conform to traditional roles at home.
The study is set to be published in the Journal of Social Issues.