University of Helsinki in Finland researchers have participated in two new studies, which indicate that climate change, is progressing faster in Arctic areas than in any other location on Earth.
The study results indicate that the Arctic eco-system has experienced immense changes in the last twenty years.
At many levels, the changes impact the eco-system services that the environment provides for people: the effects extend to the adequacy of natural resources, food production, climate temperature, and result in changes to the landscape.
The results show that spring begins considerably sooner than before.
The blossoming and pollination period of plants starts as much as twenty days sooner in comparison to the situation ten years ago.
Predators are in dire straits because nutrition is now available too soon in relation to the otherwise favorable nesting period.
The distribution of many insects has moved even more north. European winter moths, for example, have destroyed extensive birch areas in Lapland after moving north.
Species invading new areas might supersede the original species in the area, which is already happening to Arctic foxes, which are currently being overrun by red foxes.
Ivory gulls, ringed seals, polar bears and narwhals are examples of species with a small distribution and specialized habitats, and such species will be the first ones to suffer from the changes.
Climate change also has indirect effects that appear in the interaction between different species.
Olivier Gilg and academy professor Ilkka Hanski from the University of Helsinki have teamed up with Benoit Sittler, a researcher from the University of Freiburg, and studied the waning of the previously cyclical population dynamics of the collared lemming in Greenland.
With mathematical models, the researchers showed that the drastic change in the population dynamics of collared lemmings is explained by the fact that snow melts sooner than before.
The lemmings do not procreate as long as before below the snow, and are also easier for predators to hunt.
In addition, frost-melt events in winter form ice layers in the snow layer or at the tundra's surface, which is why the lemmings are unable to find food like they used to.