Menstruation, also called as periods or monthly bleeding, occurs in women in the reproductive age group (15-44 years). When the body is preparing for pregnancy there is a surge of hormones (chemical substances) in the body resulting in the thickening of the uterus lining. When pregnancy fails, the thickened uterus (filled with blood and tissue) is lost and becomes thin again. There is also a reduction in the hormone levels. The cycle repeats again every month in anticipation of pregnancy throughout the reproductive phase of a woman.
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