Insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine screening for primary hypertension in asymptomatic children and adolescents was found by the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). Hypertension in children and adolescents has increased over the past several decades, which may be attributable to the climb in childhood overweight and obesity rates.
An estimated 11 percent of obese children in the United States suffer from hypertension, putting them at increased risk for hypertension in adulthood. One rationale for screening young patients is that it could lead to interventions that reduce blood pressure and reduce the risk for cardiovascular events and death in adulthood. However, there might also be harms associated with early treatment.
A review of evidence published since the Task Force's 2003 recommendation found insufficient evidence to draw conclusions about the balance of the benefits and harms of screening. The full recommendation statement is being published in Annals of Internal Medicine and also in Pediatrics.