In a recent study conducted by Michigan State University psychology researchers it was found that brains get confused when rules change.
For the human brain, learning a new task when rules change can be a surprisingly difficult process marred by repeated mistakes, their study found.
Imagine traveling to Ireland and suddenly having to drive on the left side of the road. The brain, trained for right-side driving, becomes overburdened trying to suppress the old rules while simultaneously focusing on the new rules, said Hans Schroder, primary researcher on the study.
The study is one of the first to show how the brain responds to mistakes that occur after rules change.
Study participants were given a computer task that involved recognizing the middle letter in strings such as "NNMNN" or "MMNMM." If "M" was in the middle, they were to press the left button; if "N" was in the middle, they were to press the right. After 50 trials, the rules were reversed so the participants had to press the right button if "M" was in the middle and the left if "N" was in the middle.
Participants made more repeated errors when the rules were reversed, meaning they weren't learning from their mistakes. In addition, a cap measuring brain activity showed they were less aware of their errors. When participants did respond correctly after the rules changed, their brain activity showed they had to work harder than when they were given the first set of rules.
"We expected they were going to get better at the task over time. But after the rules changed they were slower and less accurate throughout the task and couldn't seem to get the hang of it," said Schroder, a graduate student in MSU's Department of Psychology.
Continually making these mistakes in the work environment can lead to frustration, exhaustion and even anxiety and depression, said Jason Moser, assistant professor of psychology and director of MSU's Clinical Psychophysiology Lab.
"These findings and our past research suggest that when you have multiple things to juggle in your mind - essentially, when you are multitasking - you are more likely to mess up," Moser said.
The study appeared in the research journal Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience.