The uncertainty of bacterial infections following respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) paved way for a study to determine the association between pneumococcal diseases and RSV.
The changes in pneumococcal disease following the introduction of seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) were associated with changes in the rate of hospitalizations coded as RSV was examined.
The study used aggregated hospitalization data from >700,000 RSV hospitalizations and >16,000 pneumococcal pneumonia hospitalizations in 36 states and data from studies with laboratory-confirmed individual-level, to confirm these findings.
RSV was associated with a significant increase in the incidence of pneumococcal pneumonia in children aged <1 year and among children aged 1-2 years.
Influenza was also associated with an increase in pneumococcal pneumonia among children aged 1-2 years.
Finally, a significant decline in RSV-coded hospitalizations in children aged <1 y following PCV7 introduction was observed.
The analyses provide evidence for an interaction between RSV and pneumococcal pneumonia.