Some women are requesting surgery to reinstate their hymen so they appear as virgins on their wedding night while others have had injections to make the G-spot more prominent which is believed to help them climax.
Rejuvenation and tightening has also been requested by women after giving birth.
But Professor Linda Cardozo, of King's College Hospital, London, said the procedures raised serious questions over ethical considerations, current medical evidence and directions for further research.
Speaking at the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) 7th International Scientific Meeting at Montreal, Prof Cardozo said: "Women are paying large sums of money for this type of surgery which may improve the appearance of their genitalia but there is no evidence that it improves function.
"A Google search shows over 45 000 references to cosmetic vaginal surgery, yet on medical databases such as PubMed or Medline there are less than 100. Extensive, robust research is needed so that a.) doctors can properly advise their patients and b.) the right course of treatment is undertaken", she said.
Prof Cardozo said it is unclear whether some forms of the surgery resolve feelings of psychological distress or improves sexual functioning.
She asked whether surgery to become a 'virgin' again is encouraging misogynist myths views about virginity but in the few studies carried out, half of women who had the procedure reported a satisfactory outcome, Telegraph reported.
Prof Cardozo said that there is little evidence that surgery after giving birth improves symptoms and the best recommendation is for a combination of psychosexual counselling, pelvic floor muscle training and the potential trial of topical oestrogens. Surgery should only proceed if these methods are unsuccessful, she said.
More research is needed on factors like anxiety, depression, body image, and sexual function and the effect of surgical interventions and psychosexual counselling.
Until this evidence is available, surgeons should remain cautious and operate only as a last resort, she said.