While some recent studies have suggested that obesity prejudice and discrimination are on the rise, researchers from New Zealand, Australia, and the US have also revealed that older toddlers, those aged around 32 months old, are picking up on the anti-fat attitudes of their mothers. The was conducted by New Zealand's University of Otago.
Professor Ted Ruffman, from Otago's Department of Psychology, said, "Anti-fat prejudice is associated with social isolation, depression, psychiatric symptoms, low self-esteem and poor body image."
Previous research had indicated anti-fat prejudice could be seen in pre-school children aged slightly more than three-and-a-half years old and was well-established in five- to ten- year-olds. But the research by Professor Ruffman and his team suggests these attitudes have an even earlier genesis.
Professor Ruffman said, "What we found is that younger infants, around 11 months of age, preferred to look at obese figures, whereas the older toddler group, around 32 months old, preferred to look at average-sized figures. Furthermore we found that preference was strongly related to maternal anti-fat prejudice. It was a high correlation--the more the mother had expressed anti-fat attitudes in the questionnaire, the more the older toddlers would look away from the obese figure towards the normal weight one."
The researchers also looked at other potential factors such as parental BMI, education and even children's TV viewing but these were unrelated to the sort of figure the child preferred to look at. Professor Ruffman said, "It is not meant to be a mother-blaming exercise, but does indicate how early children begin to absorb and display the attitudes of those around them. It's just that mothers tend to be the primary caregivers and they are just reflecting wider societal attitudes."
Professor Ruffman said, "Some argue this anti-fat prejudice is innate but our results indicate it is socially learned, which is consistent with findings about other forms of prejudice. What is surprising, is that children are picking up on these things so early."
Study co-author Associate Professor Kerry O'Brien from Monash University said, "Weight-based prejudice is causing significant social, psychological, and physical harms to those stigmatized. It's driving body dissatisfaction and eating disorders in underweight populations; and social isolation, avoidance of exercise settings, and depression in very overweight populations. We need to find ways to address this prejudice."