Cataract is a condition characterized by clouding of the lens of the eye. It usually affects both eyes, but almost one eye is affected earlier than the other. Cataract cannot spread from one eye to the other. It may or may not affect the entire lens.
The lens is that part of the eye which helps to focus light on the retina. The retina is the eye's sensitive layer that sends visual signals to the brain. To produce a sharp image, the lens must remain clear. With progressing age, proteins in the lens begin to break down and the lens becomes cloudy. Due to the opacity, the light is blocked and scattered, and therefore the image that appears is blurred. As the cataract develops, it becomes harder for a person to see.
Cataracts are most often related to the aging process and found in persons over the age of 55, but they are also occasionally found in younger people. Some children are born with cataracts or develop it during childhood (congenital/juvenile cataract). A cataract may also develop after eye injury (traumatic cataract), exposure to radiation (radiation cataract), inflammation, and some other eye diseases (secondary cataract).
Types of cataracts include-
► Subcapsular cataract- it occurs at the back of the lens.
► Nuclear cataract- it is formed deep in the central zone (nucleus) of the lens. Nuclear cataracts usually are associated with aging.
► Cortical cataract- it occurs in the lens cortex (part of the lens that surrounds the central nucleus) and is characterized by white, wedge-like opacities that start in the periphery of the lens and work their way to the center in a spoke-like fashion.
Cataract causes no pain and progresses slowly to cause vision loss. It is potentially blinding if left untreated and is the principal cause of blindness in all the countries of the world.
More than quarter of all Indians aged 65 and older have a cataract.
There are no medications, dietary supplements, exercises or optical devices to cure cataracts. Surgery is the only way a cataract can be cured.
Latest Publications and Research on CataractBilateral descemet membrane detachment following cataract surgery. - Published by PubMed
Accuracy of routine data on paediatric cataract in the UK compared to active surveillance: lessons from the IOLu2 study. - Published by PubMed
Lamellar ichthyosis presenting as bilateral spontaneous corneal perforation. - Published by PubMed
Pattern of blindness in a community based hospital of Nepal. - Published by PubMed
Corneal endothelial damage after cataract surgery in eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome. - Published by PubMed